Denoting a type of consonant made by the friction of breath in a narrow opening, producing a turbulent air flow.
- ‘The unvoiced fricative phonemes stem from the hissing of a steady airstream through the mouth.’
- ‘The present work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high quality articulatory synthesis for fricative consonants, and in particular to match a given reference subject.’
A fricative consonant, e.g., f and th.
- ‘Several other sounds originate in the back of the throat, often as a voiceless click rather than a voiced fricative.’
- ‘We can note, for instance, the general avoidance of fricatives and affricates in pidgin phonological inventories.’
- ‘The sounds that agree in voicing comprise stops, fricatives, and affricates.’
- ‘It is relatively easy to learn to produce the fricatives corresponding to all the major places of articulation.’
- ‘But then, little by little, the words become only sounds, a random collection of glottals and fricatives, a storm of whirling phonemes.’
Mid 19th century: from modern Latin fricativus, from Latin fricare to rub.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.