Main definitions of file in US English:

: filé1file2file3file4

filé1

noun

North American
  • Pounded or powdered sassafras leaves used to flavor and thicken soup, especially gumbo.

    • ‘Filé has since become a signature flavor in Cajun cooking, adding authentic Louisiana character to mouth-watering gumbos and your own favorite dishes.’
    • ‘Likewise filé powder made from the dried leaves of the sassafras tree would be added during the final stages of cooking to give the gumbo a ‘stringy’ texture.’
    • ‘"It's a sin to eat gumbo without filé."’

Origin

Mid 19th century: from French, past participle of filer ‘to twist’.

Pronunciation

filé

/fiˈlā/

Main definitions of file in US English:

: filé1file2file3file4

file2

noun

  • 1A folder or box for holding loose papers that are typically arranged in a particular order for easy reference.

    ‘a file of correspondence’
    • ‘His brief case contains many fat pink paper files.’
    • ‘The last drawer contained a stack full of files and papers.’
    • ‘She found lots of files and other papers, but no keys.’
    • ‘Some held thin paper files and sniffed importantly.’
    • ‘Preparation of products using recycled items will be the prime focus and the items will include cardboard files, paper cups and bags.’
    • ‘The remaining wall was home to a huge bookshelf, with files lining the top and bottom half.’
    • ‘And then, today, I came across two large box files stuffed with paper copies of the correspondence, all neatly filed in date order.’
    • ‘He moved a pile of old work papers and case files from off the coffee table and placed his bowl of broth down.’
    • ‘Her face remained straight, with no emotion and she quickly grabbed her files and moved towards the door to follow the other doctor.’
    • ‘Parker was kind of hidden behind the files when I entered her office.’
    • ‘As she started humming the tune and pulled out a stack of papers from the only file in her filing cabinet, the phone rang.’
    • ‘The admiral pushed the file towards the edge of the desk.’
    • ‘She handed him the file she had tucked behind her back.’
    • ‘If they did not have the required number, they continued selecting files in reverse alphabetic order starting with the letter M.’
    • ‘In Australia he worked for a time at the sprawling Department of Veterans, one of hundreds silently compiling files which lined acres of wall.’
    • ‘I pulled out all his drawers, rummaged through his files and papers.’
    • ‘You can hardly see him behind the files on his Commons desk.’
    • ‘He took a handful of papers from the file he held, then placed the folder on Tanner's desk.’
    • ‘The man dropped the files, papers flying out of the folders and floating softly to the ground.’
    • ‘Files and thus loose documents belonging to files were color coded so I knew which specific stack they were in or which folder they were filed into.’
    folder, portfolio, binder, box, document case
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 The contents of a file folder or box.
      • ‘However, he said if the issue of releasing files was raised again, his advice to the board would be to act in a transparent manner.’
      • ‘We have also been busy sorting and sending files and materials to the new editorial staff and are working closely with them to ensure a smooth transition.’
      • ‘Doctors' offices no longer held hard copy medical files, they were now held on computers.’
      • ‘There are plans to ensure that credit reference files differentiate between a would-be borrower making an enquiry of a lender and actually taking out credit with them.’
      • ‘Legal representatives have been trying to gain access to key state files in order to vindicate their clients' interests.’
      • ‘Whatever the truth behind his death, the files he left behind are not only evidence of a vast network of corruption but may also have profound effects on international relations.’
      • ‘During that time, we managed to steal someone's military files before they were destroyed.’
      • ‘Instead, the government is making files available to former residents and their families.’
      • ‘This file was the responsibility of one Kathryn Gregory, who is now on leave.’
      • ‘So the White House was vindicated on the issue of the FBI files.’
      • ‘Those authorities demonstrate that judicial notice cannot be taken of material within a court file; such material is not evidence.’
      • ‘I know that the Minister has said that those things will be irrelevant to the researchers when they look through files, but the issue is that the researchers will still see those things.’
      • ‘They did not, however, have access to military files.’
      • ‘I carefully put all the files together, making notes on them as I went through, so I could report effectively to him.’
      • ‘Yesterday I had tried to look at files in the restricted area but the guards had refused to let me saying that I wasn't one of the king's champions.’
      • ‘The right, which already existed in relation to information stored on a computer, now extends to manual data, including structured paper files.’
      • ‘A move to electronic records could make a patient's medical files accessible anywhere in the world.’
      • ‘He said he had to look through paper files in a ‘broom cupboard office’ next to the force's divisional intelligence bureau to unearth the details.’
      • ‘Still, faculty members are no more amenable to network snooping than they are to having their paper files randomly inspected by administrators.’
      • ‘Overall, there is a lot of duplication between these files and the contents of files previously released.’
    2. 1.2Computing A collection of data, programs, etc., stored in a computer's memory or on a storage device under a single identifying name.
      ‘do you want to save this file?’
      as modifier ‘a file name’
      • ‘And they had to figure out what to name the file, before they could close down the computer and head out into the snow.’
      • ‘Does the company have at least one back-up copy of all data and software files stored at a secure off-site storage location?’
      • ‘Search your computer's files, audio, video, images and emails, and even the Web.’
      • ‘Users will also need special software to play the files on their desktop computers.’
      • ‘Lastly there's a flaw related to the display of the names of downloaded files.’
      batch of data, document, text
      View synonyms

verb

[with object]
  • 1Place (a document) in a cabinet, box, or folder in a particular order for preservation and easy reference.

    ‘the contract, when signed, is filed’
    figurative ‘he still had the moment filed away in his memory’
    • ‘I file the papers in their eventual home and create a pointer for myself to remind me that there's unfinished business filed away there.’
    • ‘She shrugged the thought and continued filing the folders in the metal cabinet.’
    • ‘The completed questionnaires were filed in a secure cabinet.’
    • ‘Cultural material deemed inappropriate like this Popeye cartoon are filed away in studio vaults, or in many cases just burned.’
    • ‘But all he received in return was a polite thank you note while the piece was quietly filed away in the orchestra's library.’
    • ‘Once users have downloaded what they want, they apparently annotate it and file it in filing cabinets and folders just as they always did.’
    • ‘If he had given the photos straightaway to a museum or other institution they might have been filed away for years until someone got around to looking at them.’
    • ‘His office was neat and tidy, his papers neatly stacked on his desk, or filed away in cabinets.’
    • ‘She she went straight to her desk and filed the folder in a locked cabinet in her desk.’
    • ‘This latest roll call of grand-slam winners is unlikely to be filed away among the classics, all of them celebrating only their first major title.’
    • ‘She finally kissed him on the forehead, and then returned to filing the strewn folders.’
    • ‘She picked up a bunch of folders from her desk and filed them into a cabinet labelled: ‘Simon’.’
    • ‘This will be filed away by Portugal in the same category as England's win over Paraguay: job done.’
    • ‘This allows a GM to easily file the orders for a game in its folder without cutting or, in the case of two games on opposite sides of the same sheet of paper, going to the copy shop.’
    • ‘The findings did not alter government policy and were simply filed away.’
    • ‘Presently, raw data from most research are likely to be filed away or lost in the depths of a hard disk once the paper is published.’
    • ‘No, that all looked to have been filed away safely in some mental cupboard.’
    • ‘He began collecting lists, brochures and catalogues, which he filed away on the top of a cabinet in his large office.’
    • ‘Customer purchase commitments are recorded in contracts that may be filed away or scanned into an electronic repository; in neither case are the data easy to access.’
    • ‘Pre-election promises, such as the reintroduction of wealth tax and taxation of trading profits, have been filed away.’
    categorize, classify, organize, put in place, put in order, order, arrange, catalogue, tabulate, index, pigeonhole
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 Submit (a legal document, application, or charge) to be placed on record by the appropriate authority.
      ‘criminal charges were filed against the firm’
      no object ‘the company had filed for bankruptcy’
      • ‘Provided the certificate is filed within 7 days you can have a public funding assessment.’
      • ‘In December, charges were filed against the women who testified.’
      • ‘Six of the companies also filed a parallel suit in Germany.’
      • ‘In early 2002 the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the US.’
      • ‘The state government challenged the magistrate's order by filing a petition in the Bombay high court.’
      • ‘The special leave application filed by the applicant certainly cannot be regarded as hopeless.’
      • ‘These applications were filed in the appeals court and during the hearing it was not allowed as evidence.’
      • ‘The company has just filed for bankruptcy with debts of over £169.7 million.’
      • ‘Bored with his career and bland, conservative nature, Miriam has already filed for divorce.’
      • ‘Ms. Conner is now divorced and her nursing home has filed for bankruptcy protection.’
      • ‘Out of 6,250 applications that were filed for legal assistance with the foundation, 3,843 were approved.’
      • ‘A class-action suit was recently filed by lawyers for the homeless who had been improperly denied their benefits.’
      • ‘After charges were filed, federal authorities began to look for the defendant.’
      • ‘But it sounds like Rifkin originally filed this patent in order to challenge the idea of patenting living materials.’
      • ‘Paperwork was filed today with the court, saying he is no longer representing Jackson.’
      • ‘Does your client not have any copies of any of the process or other documents that have been filed or orders made?’
      • ‘They are referred to in the submissions filed in support of this application.’
      • ‘I had never been told before this that they had even already filed for divorce.’
      • ‘The applicant filed an application for judicial review, but it was dismissed by consent.’
      • ‘No charges were ever filed against the accountant.’
      apply, put in, register, sign up, ask
      bring, press, lodge, place, lay, prefer, put forward, present, submit
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 (of a reporter) send (a story) to a newspaper or news organization.
      • ‘But because our writers are already filing timely stories that won't hold, we've decided to launch without having in place every single piece.’
      • ‘Even wire service reporters cannot beat them because the former must file copy to a news desk before it is published.’
      • ‘Newspaper and television reporters filed dozens of stories from the scene of the fire.’
      • ‘It was the sound of frustrated and exhausted BBC Radio 4 reporter Michael Buchanan struggling to file his story for yesterday's Today programme.’
      • ‘The Birmingham News's senior political reporter filed this report.’
      • ‘One reporter filed a statement that there were over one thousand people in the march.’
      • ‘Nine organizations and four individual journalists filed a federal suit in New York, seeking an injunction against enforcement of restrictions on movement.’
      • ‘Three or four trained reporters can work around that because they've trained to file stories.’
      • ‘The intrepid reporters have filed stories from around the world, including Tokyo, Montreal and Alberquerque, New Mexico.’
      • ‘And even then it's mostly a problem for reporters, who get fed up of filing the same story.’
      • ‘Most of the print reporters were heading back to file their stories.’
      • ‘I talked to that reporter before they went to file the story.’
      • ‘Every daily reporter will file something from the news conference.’
      • ‘Paul Reynolds, their crime correspondent filed a report at lunchtime about the arrest of the suspect and the mistress.’
      • ‘The News Editor then ensures all the stories are filed by deadline so they can go to the sub-editors.’
      • ‘Both the reporter and I needed to file stories at the top of the hour, so the interview was uniquely direct and productive.’
      • ‘You want to stay on, filing stories destined for front pages.’
      • ‘It does not require, to meet Dr. Ink's standards, that the reporter file the story from that place.’
      • ‘See, I've worked in journalism for the last seventy-eight years, ever since the usual way a reporter would file a story was by telegram.’
      • ‘I've since picked it up, done additional reporting and filed my story.’

Phrases

  • on file

    • In a file or filing system.

      • ‘You should make sure the address they have on file is your current address and that any charges on the account were made by you.’
      • ‘This is compared to the voter's signature on file at the elections office.’
      • ‘You will be pleased to hear that I have enough of these tales on file to last another six months, and three out of the next four involve things getting blown up.’
      • ‘The reports must be filed monthly with the Supreme Court and be kept on file with the local court's clerk.’
      • ‘The boy was cleared of the charges and has no previous convictions, charges or warnings but despite this his fingerprints were kept on file.’
      • ‘I also know that by law, many companies are required to keep written resume's on file for at least a year.’
      • ‘Of course, I already knew they would not have my name on file, but I figured it couldn't hurt.’
      • ‘A key factor is that these households pay a monthly bill, so they already have their credit card on file.’
      • ‘He has a retaliation complaint on file with the city's Employee Relations Board.’
      • ‘With regard to evidence, I have been told that you have everything on file and you have the files in front of you.’

Origin

Late Middle English (as a verb meaning ‘string documents on a thread or wire to keep them in order’): from French filer ‘to string’, fil ‘a thread’, both from Latin filum ‘a thread’. Compare with file.

Pronunciation

file

/fīl//faɪl/

Main definitions of file in US English:

: filé1file2file3file4

file3

noun

  • 1A line of people or things one behind another.

    ‘Plains Cree warriors riding in file down the slopes’
    • ‘He walked off to a corridor out of the landing bay with the lead general at his side and the other two in file behind them.’
    • ‘It's all too clear: it's not the visionaries but rather the pragmatics that are standing in file.’
    • ‘Aside from a few occasions, we rode in file, all strung out, from the start until Pradollano.’
    • ‘‘There,’ she said softly, and a moment later, saw a dark file of flying shapes appear.’
    • ‘They line nine men up in a file, one behind the other.’
    line, column, row, string, chain, queue, procession, train, convoy, caravan
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1Military A small detachment of troops.
      ‘a file of English soldiers had ridden out from Perth’
      • ‘Maneuvering and the use of machine guns in fighting made infantry files pressing along the front inefficient.’
      • ‘Commanders and platoon leaders should lead from the front of attack formation even when in file or column when fighting in urban terrain.’
      • ‘One soldier in the file was hit by mortar fire a few yards from my tank.’
    2. 1.2Chess Each of the eight rows of eight squares on a chessboard running away from the player toward the opponent.
      Compare with rank (sense 2 of the noun)
      • ‘For kings on the same file, this is just an odd number of squares between kings!’
      • ‘Black is opening a file on the queenside in order to activate his rook.’
      • ‘Instead of just accepting this situation, an experienced player would actively play to create a file for his Rooks.’
      • ‘Since the position is closed, we have time (if needed) to bring our pieces to a better square or file.’
      • ‘Two pawns of the same color lined up on a file as the result of a capture.’

verb

  • no object, with adverbial of direction (of a group of people) walk one behind the other, typically in an orderly and solemn manner.

    ‘the mourners filed into the church’
    • ‘The movie was soon over and the group filed out of the cinema.’
    • ‘He looked over to one of the hallways leading into the dining hall and saw a large group of people filing in through the doors.’
    • ‘A few seconds passed and the group filed to the back of the shuttle.’
    • ‘The group filed out of the classroom and made their way downstairs to the locker rooms.’
    • ‘The guys all filed out of the room until it was just the two of them.’
    • ‘At the funeral they were filing past the open coffin to pay their respects.’
    • ‘The mourners filed out of the church.’
    • ‘The group slowly filed into the small cell, circling the block in quiet reverence.’
    • ‘She glanced out the window, and saw the group filing down the path a few stories down.’
    • ‘There was a beep as an elevator door opened, and a group of people filed out.’
    • ‘The group filed out of the recording booth and into the room.’
    • ‘Fingers were crossed and prayers said as the group filed back into their seats.’
    • ‘Sarah's two groupies filed in behind her, both had their own individual walks but they would all be classified in the same category.’
    • ‘The group filed out, and one of them slammed the door shut, ‘What did they want with us?’’
    • ‘The group filed out of the room, Cheryl and Tim staying a moment behind.’
    • ‘The mostly middle-aged crowd from labour unions and peace groups filed behind a truck with speakers blasting, ‘Power to the People’.’
    • ‘The group all filed into each of the rooms, which Jim presumed were identical.’
    • ‘He gently placed a kiss on her forehead and walked out with the medics filing out behind him.’
    • ‘As the rest of the Training Center filed out, I walked up onto the stage and behind the curtain.’
    • ‘They all filed out of the room and stopped just outside the door.’
    walk in a line, proceed in a line, march, parade, troop, pass in formation
    View synonyms

Origin

Late 16th century: from French file, from filer ‘to string’.

Pronunciation

file

/fīl//faɪl/

Main definitions of file in US English:

: filé1file2file3file4

file4

noun

  • A tool with a roughened surface or surfaces, typically of steel, used for smoothing or shaping a hard material.

    ‘it is possible to make the necessary notch with a file’
    • ‘Use a smooth file or sanding block to take off the sharp edge with a few shear strokes (down and along the edge simultaneously).’
    • ‘The facility is filled with workbenches bearing tool boxes loaded with files, stones, scrapers and reamers.’
    • ‘It would be impossible to etch checkering like this with a hand file because the area you'd want to checker is surrounded by stuff you just don't want to cut.’
    • ‘Fine-toothed files shaped tangs on both barrels, one stroke at a time.’
    • ‘Maintain the existing angle on the blade, and sharpen with a smooth pass with the file.’
    • ‘Sandersons was situated on the Cutlery Road and was involved in the production of tools, saws, files etc.’
    • ‘He would also have punches with which to make holes, shears for cutting sheet metal and files for smoothing the metal.’
    • ‘Basic Fitting was a course designed to equip graduates with the skills required to use metals tools, drills, files and the like.’
    • ‘The exception would be the use of a hacksaw with a fine toothed blade to cut it to length and a metal file to smooth out the roughness.’

verb

[with object]
  • 1Smooth or shape (something) with a file.

    ‘when I have nothing else to do, I file my nails’
    • ‘After spreading a dry towel across her lap so not to dirty her dress, she took Liz's left hand and began filing the nails.’
    • ‘And filing my nails has become really important.’
    • ‘Trim them regularly, and if you file your nails do it in one direction only, as sawing back and forth will encourage them to split.’
    • ‘Mike shaped, filed and polished the buttplate and triggerguard from rough brass castings before fitting them to the stock.’
    • ‘You can often bend the brake wall back and file it smooth enough to keep riding on it.’
    • ‘Your favourite shirt might be fuchsia, or you might have a tendency to file your nails and pumice your feet while you're in the bath.’
    • ‘First, Sharon filed my nails into lovely rounded shapes.’
    • ‘The secretary had tight red curls done all through her hair, and was filing her nails when I caught her attention.’
    • ‘The technicians wear small paper masks over their mouths, but their hands and faces are liberally covered with white powder from filing clients' acrylic nails.’
    • ‘The expert use of forging dies and of skilled hands to file, smooth, polish, and finish are readily apparent.’
    • ‘A juror was dismissed from duty yesterday after reading a magazine and filing her nails during a case.’
    • ‘The edges of the bands were filed smooth before they were used and males were banded on the right forearm and females on the left forearm.’
    • ‘She was seated in the foyer, and when she was not fixing appointments, was busy filing her nails.’
    • ‘The head was shaped with a bow saw, then rasped, filed, and smoothed like the shaft.’
    • ‘She was busy filing her nails and I cleared my throat.’
    • ‘I suspect the government agent assigned to my life spends most of the day filing his nails and eating toast and wondering how I can go so long without ever doing laundry.’
    • ‘When dry, Claire gently tapped it - she said when it sounded hard and solid she knew it was ready to be filed into shape.’
    • ‘He then files the piece to smooth out the rough edges and rubs it on different sand papers for a smooth finish.’
    • ‘Brooks filed each part to shape, marked both locks as ‘London Warranted,’ and finished them with color case hardening.’
    • ‘They took me back to the house and my aunt cleaned me up then gave me a manicure, filing my nails and painting them maroon.’
    smooth, buff, rub, rub down, polish, burnish, furbish
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1file something away/off Remove something by grinding it off with a file.
      ‘the engine numbers were filed away’
      • ‘If caught early enough, the cracks can be filed away before they spread deeper a bit like filing a cracked finger nail before it splits.’
      • ‘Once the worst pitting and damage is filed away, he sands the metal with a coarse sandpaper.’
      • ‘The one place where the jagged edges are filed smoothly, efficiently away.’
      • ‘It's rather creepy how the dead ant-parts are filed off in the spiral staircases and heaped in piles behind the painted barn.’

Origin

Old English fīl, of West Germanic origin; related to Dutch vijl and German Feile.

Pronunciation

file

/fīl//faɪl/