Definition of excitation in English:

excitation

noun

  • 1technical The application of energy to a particle, object, or physical system, in particular.

    • ‘The increased density ends up requiring more energy for the same amount of excitation that would lead to the boiling of the water.’
    • ‘Pyrethroids attack the nervous system of insects, provoking excitation, paralysis and death.’
    1. 1.1Physics
      The process in which an atom or other particle adopts a higher energy state when energy is supplied.
      ‘thermal excitation’
      • ‘Absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra were subsequently measured.’
      • ‘Correction of excitation and emission spectra was performed using a Rhodamine B quantum counter solution and a standard lamp, respectively.’
      • ‘In 1902, he published his theory of electron excitation and luminescence.’
      • ‘They have found that these tiny devices fluoresce with much narrower excitation spectra than their semiconductor counterparts and so might find use in highly specific labeling for molecular biology experiments.’
      • ‘The excitation and emission spectra were corrected using correction factors supplied by SPEX.’
      • ‘Made up of small numbers of gold or silver atoms, the nanoclusters are strongly fluorescent and have narrow excitation and emission spectra.’
      • ‘Two-photon excitation is a nonlinear process in which a fluorophore absorbs two photons simultaneously.’
      • ‘The electrons ejected from the atoms upon this excitation are deflected - or, in our case, accelerated or decelerated - by the few-cycle laser field.’
      • ‘These data demonstrate that parallel measurements with UV-A and UV-B excitation can give an indication of the absorption properties of the screening compounds.’
      • ‘The first is the intrinsic polarization of the isolated acceptor emission, which may be a function of its environment and the particular excitation and emission wavelengths used.’
      • ‘This was revealed by alkali-treatment of leaf transverse sections, by the shape of the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra and by the time-resolved analysis of leaf BGF.’
      • ‘Simplified model fitting of the experimental data enabled to evaluate the spectroscopic parameters characterizing excitation and photoionization processes.’
      • ‘The solution was scaled so as to normalize the peaks in excitation and emission spectra to unity.’
      • ‘The dependence of the emission spectrum on excitation wavelength in ethanol glass at 77 K is shown in Fig.6.’
      • ‘In the Rydberg system, instead of shrinking the lattice constant to make the atoms overlap, you can simply increase the size of the atom by increasing its excitation.’
      • ‘Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra at room temperature and at 77 K are presented.’
      • ‘N 2 and O 2 can therefore only absorb light through electronic excitation.’
      • ‘In our terminology, an exciton is a photon reaching a donor and, dependent on the donor's excitation state upon arrival, potentially participating in the process of donor excitation.’
      • ‘Based on the precedents from the ion-imaging field, the most useful reversible probes, termed ratio probes, exhibit a shift in their excitation or emission spectrum between the free and bound forms.’
      • ‘Vibrations of the nanospheres arose through natural thermal excitation, as well as stimulation by the incident light.’
    2. 1.2Physiology
      The state of enhanced activity or potential activity of a cell, organism, or tissue that results from its stimulation.
      • ‘The classical concept of fusion is a three-step process of cell excitation, docking, and fusion, in which docking may occur before cell excitation.’
      • ‘As predicted by Hebbian rules of learning, the firing of a neuron, resulting from the combined excitation of all synaptic input to the cell, is the necessary event for consolidating memory.’
      • ‘In others, such as those controlling the diameter of a large blood vessel, excitation is by neurotransmitters released from autonomic nerve endings close to the cells, but not with structured synapses.’
      • ‘Events that stimulate muscle activity by raising sarcoplasmic calcium begin with neural excitation at neuromuscular junctions.’
      • ‘In muscle cells, nicotinic receptors present at the neuromuscular junction mediate rapid excitation that leads to muscle contraction.’
      • ‘This contraction arises from excitation of the circular layer of smooth muscle by autonomic nerves.’
      • ‘These reflexes are initiated by the excitation of duodenal mucosal chemoreceptors to acid, fats, and osmotic pressure in the luminal contents.’
      • ‘Light resulting from the laser excitation of fluorochromed cells is detected by photosensors and converted into a set of digital values.’
      • ‘The brain consists of millions of interconnected neurons, and cognitive activity reduces, ultimately, to patterns of neuronal excitation and inhibition.’
      • ‘Essential for its use as a marker in protoplast fusion is its ease of detection by illuminating live cells or tissues at the appropriate excitation wavelength.’
      • ‘However, it is difficult to directly compare these results with our study because different cell lines, excitation wavelengths, and power levels were used.’
      • ‘Cell excitation has been analyzed in one of two ways.’
      • ‘In anesthetized adult rats, Fenik and Veasey studied the role of serotonin receptor subtypes in the excitation of neurons of the upper airway dilator muscles.’
      • ‘This occurs at chemical synapses when neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuron and produce excitation or inhibition of the postsynaptic cell.’
      • ‘Nausea can also be of central origin, arising from direct excitation of medullary receptors by systemic toxins.’
      • ‘The transverse tubular system of cardiac muscle is a structure that allows rapid propagation of excitation into the cell interior.’
      • ‘For that reason, the emission of red fluorescence on excitation of cancerous tissue by blue light increases more than the emission of green fluorescence.’
      • ‘One of the photointermediates interacts with the G protein, resulting in the electrical excitation of a photoreceptor cell.’
      • ‘The researchers then cultured sensory nerve cells and measured the level of intracellular calcium, as a measure of nerve cell excitation.’
      • ‘These asymmetries result both from the nature of the coordination of the two muscle layers and from the patterns of spread of excitation within the muscle layers.’
    3. 1.3Physics
      The process of applying current to the winding of an electromagnet to produce a magnetic field.
      • ‘Theoretical models based on current injection membranes predict that excitation will occur for currents of all strengths once a threshold is exceeded.’
      • ‘The electric field oscillations of the same 5-fs laser pulse are then used to probe the time structure of electron emission accompanying the impulsive x-ray excitation.’
      • ‘Fleming and his colleagues were able to extend this technique to electronic excitations which require visible light for their excitation.’
      • ‘A barrier valve including an armature, longitudinally movable toward a pole core by excitation of an electrical winding.’
      • ‘In addition, a substantial signal/noise advantage may be obtained if the tip is directly oscillated as opposed to indirect mechanical excitation with an acoustic transducer.’
      • ‘Magnetic excitation, as well as other direct excitation methods, enable the drive signal to be directly related to the drive force and thus to the response of the cantilever.’
      • ‘We can readily observe resonant behavior of MCs using excitation in alternated electric, electromagnetic, or acoustic fields.’
      • ‘The microsecond components of the electric signals for excitation of O and bR are very different.’
    4. 1.4Electronics
      The process of applying a signal voltage to the control electrode of an electron tube or the base of a transistor.
      • ‘From analyzing the recorded signal, both the excitation and response of the ground are obtained simultaneously.’
      • ‘The photovoltaic signal continues to rise for 4.5 ps after excitation, and the voltage profile corresponds well with the population dynamics of the K state.’
  • 2The action or state of exciting or being excited; excitement.

    ‘a state of sexual excitation’
    • ‘Only when a man engages in too close an association with young males who are either the object of sexual excitation or could easily lead to it do questions like these prove important in retrospect.’
    • ‘Not to mention is triggers sexual excitation in adults.’
    • ‘Thus, in Freud's energetic representation of the nervous-system there are two economies that impart psychical excitation.’
    • ‘The objective of this study was to develop and examine the reliability and validity of a questionnaire that assesses individual differences in the propensity for sexual excitation and inhibition.’
    • ‘Their data indicated that men who characterized themselves as high on sexual excitation were more likely to report having used physical force to obtain sex.’
    • ‘Males have a lower threshold for sexual excitation, tend to perceive people and relationships in a more sexualized manner, and are more likely to interpret a variety of stimuli as signals of sexual intent.’
    • ‘Extreme sexual excitation after periods of abstinence can cause it.’
    • ‘In general, this study's results suggest the woman's consent, or lack thereof, influenced the predictive utility of both sexual excitation and attraction to sexual aggression.’
    • ‘Relentless in seeking its excitation and satisfaction, libido finds itself frustrated by restraints imposed by society, an obstacle whose origin turns out to be enigmatic for Freud.’
    • ‘It is an excitation that plays so great a part with our intellectuals in this carnival we decorate with the proud name of ‘revolution’.’

Origin

Late Middle English: from Old French, from late Latin excitatio(n-), from excitare rouse, call forth (see excite).

Pronunciation:

excitation

/ˌeksəˈtāSH(ə)n/