Definition of exchange in US English:



  • 1An act of giving one thing and receiving another (especially of the same type or value) in return.

    ‘negotiations should eventually lead to an exchange of land for peace’
    ‘an exchange of prisoners of war’
    ‘opportunities for the exchange of information’
    • ‘When he returned North, following an exchange of prisoners, he was given a series of ovations and testimonials and had dinner with Abraham Lincoln, with whom he became friendly.’
    • ‘Its aim is to develop standards for almost everything, to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services, and foster scientific research.’
    • ‘The act is aimed at preventing the movement of terrorist funds, and enhancing the exchange of information about financial transactions with foreign countries.’
    • ‘When a prisoner exchange provided him with a chance to return to his native Groton, his relatives had to come to take him by force back to his birthplace.’
    • ‘After calling the store and assuring the person that she did indeed know how to match the coloured wire to the same coloured connection on the system, they instructed her to return it for an exchange.’
    • ‘Costumes and accessories are not refundable and can only be returned for an exchange.’
    • ‘In exchange, Kansas will receive approximately 17% of tribal casino revenue.’
    • ‘The second floor, which is accessed via a freight elevator, provides a needle exchange service that operates four day per week, four to six hours/day.’
    • ‘We do not have to run millions of experiments to see that people value the good received in an exchange over the good given away.’
    • ‘U.N. correspondents were at Panmunjom covering Operation Little Switch, a prisoner exchange.’
    • ‘During negotiations over a prisoner exchange, English officials handed over this list to the French intermediary, Rigaud de Vaudreuil.’
    • ‘Should the Cubs find a taker who can sign Sammy long-term at any point in the season, be it February, May or July, they should still receive a reasonable exchange.’
    • ‘The government and rebels remain far apart on conditions for a prisoner exchange.’
    • ‘There remains much that needs to be done in order to make the Internet a widely acceptable marketplace for the exchange of goods and services between merchants and consumers.’
    • ‘In exchange, New York received pitcher Pedro Ramos.’
    • ‘The lower capital gains rates apply to sales or exchanges received after May 5, 2003.’
    • ‘In exchange, each student received a candy bar and a pencil.’
    • ‘The agreement establishes commissions to delineate the disputed border and provides for the exchange of prisoners and the return of displaced people.’
    • ‘No returns or exchanges unless the item is faulty or not as described.’
    • ‘In exchange, the taxpayers receive $10 million in annual rent, which will never come close to reimbursing the city and state for their costs.’
    interchange, trade, trading, trade-off, swapping, barter, giving and taking, traffic, trafficking, bandying, reciprocity
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 A visit or visits in which two people or groups from different countries stay with each other or do each other's jobs.
      as modifier ‘nine colleagues were away on an exchange visit to Germany’
      • ‘They flew from Manchester Airport on April 11 after education officials were told there was no need to cancel the cultural exchange visit.’
      • ‘The first leg of the exchange involved a week-long visit to Lisbon of various Belfast artists involved in the project to take the art of Belfast to the Portugese capital.’
      • ‘Defending solicitor Victor Clarke stated that Mr Ploet was in Ireland five months as part of a farming exchange and intended to return to France next week.’
      • ‘Despite the serious nature of the expertise shared by the lifesavers, Moreton College's Rob Kreisler said the exchange visit was also a chance to build friendships across the Atlantic.’
      • ‘The culmination of the exchange was a visit by the Foxford Transition Years to Ratingen in March and a return visit to Foxford by the German students and teachers last week.’
      • ‘The culmination of the exchange was a visit to Foxford by the German students and teachers recently.’
      • ‘Meanwhile Hamburg and St. Petersburg were, for the first time, able to arrange personal visits and school exchanges.’
      • ‘This requires intensifying the dialogue between them by multiplying the exchange of visits focused on the political and economic activity fields.’
      • ‘is a common statement heard among those who have recently returned from an exchange, only to realise that others are barely interested in hearing about their adventures.’
      • ‘He admitted some people had questioned the value of the Caribbean trip and suggested an exchange visit to Pakistan or India would be more relevant.’
      • ‘The latest exchange visit was hailed as a great success by Mr Shaw and he is making fresh appeals for people to get involved in creating even closer links between York and Munster.’
      • ‘Emmanuel said a St Lucian team will be preparing for an exchange visit from St Vincent, in mid-December, to engage in a variety of sporting disciplines.’
      • ‘The group, which consists of 5 teachers and 26 school children are on an exchange visit with Moylough Primary School.’
      • ‘Ms Morrison-Tohol and Ms Wennmacher were in Castlebar accompanying a group from the Hochstadt Kolping Familie on an exchange visit with the local Scouts.’
      • ‘The target's dependent is in a student exchange program-BECOME THAT EXCHANGE STUDENT’
      • ‘A Ugandan teacher on an exchange visit to Ingleton Middle School is keeping warm in the cold Northern climes by teaching pupils how to play African drums.’
      • ‘Highlights included visiting America in an exchange programme, a parachute jump and qualifying to fly solo.’
      • ‘It was the fourth time there has been an exchange visit for students of both towns.’
      • ‘A delegation from Chippenham visited Uganda in February last year and this was meant to be the exchange visit for the Ugandans.’
      • ‘Plans are also underway for an exchange visit from members of an orchestra in Prague in April.’
    2. 1.2 A short conversation; an argument.
      ‘there was a heated exchange’
      • ‘Still, the latest meeting was a good contest, not short of lively exchanges, memorable clashes and the occasional burst of blatant hostility.’
      • ‘In this private exchange I think the insults got even more vicious.’
      • ‘To challenge either is to perpetuate an irresolvable debate, a heated exchange of ideas that no one ever wins, which leaves everyone with bad feelings.’
      • ‘The visit instigated several poetic exchanges between Dunbar and Cotter.’
      • ‘MANY THINK that Corporation council meetings always witness heated exchanges, since it deals with only ‘serious’ issues.’
      • ‘A conversation is a living exchange, it's when people say things back and forth and no one knows for certain what's going to be said.’
      • ‘Then after the brief exchange, the two office workers go their own ways, never to meet again.’
      • ‘I am distracted from further conversation by an expanding exchange on MSN Messenger.’
      • ‘There were heated exchanges at the meeting, with Mr Martin making an impassioned speech defending his position.’
      • ‘In fact, she joined in on their short exchange of words as she felt a bigger feeling take over her.’
      • ‘A heated exchange of words broke out with a group of eight youths who were standing on the other side of the road.’
      • ‘The incident led to some heated exchanges and a match that was always disputed with total commitment and undisguised physicality threatened to boil over on occasions.’
      • ‘Recently there has been an exchange carried on within the pages of Swim Magazine that has intrigued us.’
      • ‘Needless to say, this didn't go over very well, and heated exchanges were the result of these meetings.’
      • ‘During one of the debate's most heated exchanges, Copps and Manley unsuccessfully tried to pin down Martin on the issue of campaign finance reform.’
      • ‘How close relations are between the MfS general and the prosecutor becomes evident from a short exchange of words before both left the building.’
      • ‘The extract concluded with an exchange about whether their conversation was being recorded.’
      • ‘What began as a heated exchange of words soon became full-blown fisticuffs.’
      • ‘In Right Appetite, they developed a movement conversation with rapid exchanges, flirtatious teasing, even telling silences.’
      • ‘No closing ranks, no calling ‘skank’, not even a charged exchange of views at the punch table.’
      conversation, dialogue, chat, talk, word, discussion, meeting, conference
      View synonyms
    3. 1.3 The giving of money for its equivalent in the money of another country.
      • ‘It is believed that the trend may help to realize the free exchange of currency, preparing the ground for the Renminbi to be an international currency.’
      • ‘Beneficial receipt may also arise from currency exchange.’
      • ‘Sure, they benefited from favorable currency exchange, but what's going on here?’
      • ‘Another fact is that currency exchange is a profitable business because there is demand.’
      • ‘The report urged they must hedge against currency exchange risks to protect themselves from the fluctuation of the greenback.’
      • ‘However, some shops may ask you to pay in sterling and may apply currency exchange and commission rates which are unfavourable.’
      • ‘The benefits include only one currency exchange, transparency of prices via a united shopping market and no risk of fluctuations between countries.’
      • ‘On the positive front, if sterling remains at current levels, the negative currency exchange impact that has hit earnings from Britain this year should have worked its way through by next year.’
      • ‘The cost of currency exchange has also pushed prices higher.’
      • ‘There was a negative currency exchange adjustment totalling €84 million in the last half-year.’
      • ‘Most of its business was in currency exchange and retail banking and its paid-up capital was only one million pounds sterling, one third that of HSBC.’
      • ‘This action would eliminate currency exchange risks and risks attached to purchasing goods from an economy with a hugely inflated currency.’
      • ‘Rates of exchange should be based on this one currency, which can be used for payment of all international trade.’
      • ‘They never knew about the two-room flats and sleeping rooms he rented, the weekly money orders sent home, the currency exchange.’
      • ‘Revenue has grown only 1.4% annually over the past five years, depressed partly by currency exchange fluctuations.’
      • ‘Currenex, a new business-to-business independent foreign currency exchange, expects to sign its first major client in Ireland in the coming weeks.’
      • ‘The daily trade in currency exchange alone is more than 50 times the value of world trade in goods and services.’
      • ‘Consistent with the shift toward a new government in Iraq run by the Iraqi people, coalition forces are playing only a minor role in the currency exchange program.’
      • ‘Finance is often thought of as the sphere of global flows and so it is in terms of currency exchange or direct investment.’
      • ‘Chinese tourism in Taiwan has been allowed under limited conditions in the past, but Chinese currency exchange has never been offered before at local banks.’
    4. 1.4 The fee or percentage charged for converting the currency of one country into that of another.
    5. 1.5 A system or market in which commercial transactions involving currency, shares, commodities, etc., can be carried out within or between countries.
      • ‘The exchange of currencies involves transaction costs.’
      • ‘In this manner, thriving nations could come to North and South Korea through cultural, athletic, political, economic and commercial exchanges.’
      • ‘Conventional share trading on exchanges is, in many respects, yesterday's way of doing business.’
      • ‘Economic exchanges within Vietnam and abroad are in full flow, and Hoa Hao followers are deeply engaged in marketing activities.’
      • ‘The portal will provide property listings, information and data research, and in the long term will be a transaction exchange for the industry.’
      • ‘On economic issues, the two parties agreed to cooperate toward pursuing the realization of direct shipping links, agricultural exchanges and a common market across the strait.’
      • ‘You can browse among the hundreds of foreign companies that list their shares on U.S. exchanges using American depositary receipts.’
      • ‘The small and midsize companies that mostly list on the exchanges have very few shares outstanding.’
      • ‘The dollar's slide on the currency exchanges has led economists to predict the pound sterling will soon be worth two dollars, which all adds up to massive discounts for British shoppers in the US.’
      • ‘London's Alternative Investment Market, supposedly the dogsbody of share exchanges, is enjoying a social whirl, while the ugly sister of the main market sits out the dance.’
      • ‘Geography acts in a similar manner, because the costs of overcoming space in order to carry out market exchanges incur transport-transactions costs.’
      • ‘‘Taiwan and Japan have shared increasingly close economic exchanges,’ Chen told his guest at the presidential office.’
      • ‘Stable trade should be carried out through exchanges among business enterprises and agricultural organizations.’
      • ‘The concept requires some knowledge of markets and exchanges, so traders are seen as the core member base.’
      • ‘Ever since, the seat has lost almost half its value as the exchange's market share and profits have come under pressure.’
      • ‘Advocates of more minimal government might argue that people have every right to such food as they can obtain through fair market exchanges and gifts.’
      • ‘Commercial exchange, conducted at urban markets, was subject to elaborate customs and taxation.’
      • ‘Shire has little surplus cash in its balance sheet, so a paper-based reverse takeover via a share exchange would be the most probable route to a takeover.’
      • ‘The fact that the new distribution arose from market transactions is irrelevant, since no one had any right to transfer those resources through market exchanges.’
      • ‘The play, though it is chronologically out of place, presents further elaborations on the figuring of identity, and metaphors of market and commercial exchange.’
    6. 1.6 A central office or station of operations providing telephone service.
      ‘private branch exchanges to automate internal telephone networks’
      • ‘The wiring in our house is connected to a local exchange carrier's central office via a twisted pair.’
      • ‘With LNP, the subscriber's telephone number identifies only the subscriber and not the exchange hosting that number.’
      • ‘In the days of operator-assisted calls, this meant you would call an operator who connected your call to an operator working in the exchange that serviced your party.’
      • ‘Of course, nobody thinks cable operators are going to quickly unseat the RBOCs as the leading providers of local exchange services.’
      • ‘The exchanges allow firms within a three-mile radius to use a system which is up to ten times faster than an ordinary telephone line.’
      • ‘The idea is that people who currently live too far from an exchange to get ADSL services will be able to get a slightly hobbled * version.’
      • ‘In many cases, the exchange itself will take place over a Gigabit Ethernet switch operated by the exchange and will involve no circuit elements.’
      • ‘DSL for home use can function in the same way, with contention appearing at the exchange / central office.’
      • ‘Is there a cure as the internal telephone cable from exchange to condo is about 750 meters?’
      • ‘Volkswagen, for instance, operates a private exchange supplied by i2 Technologies, Ariba, and IBM.’
      • ‘To avail of the service, customers must have a standard fixed telephone line, exchange coverage, and computer equipment that reaches the minimum required specification.’
      • ‘In the old days (pre-iSCSI) the two most common choices were to take the machine down or have a SAN service your exchange needs.’
      • ‘Method of establishing a connection as well as an exchange, service computer and communications network’
      • ‘An innovative part of the project is an SMS text messaging service and an international exchange with a similar group in England.’
      • ‘Wright also sketched plans for a separate commission, a post office and telegraph exchange intended for central Baghdad.’
      • ‘According to official sources, the blast ripped apart the exchange yesterday cutting the telephone line of the entire area.’
    7. 1.7Chess A move or short sequence of moves in which both players capture material of comparable value, or particularly the exchange in which one captures a rook in return for a knight or bishop (and is said to win the exchange).
      • ‘The opening was a messy affair, but I imagine Piket was doing alright until he blundered an exchange in the early middlegame.’
      • ‘Kasparov was up the exchange, but his king was out in the open across the board and Adams had an extra pawn.’
      • ‘Also, I once had a student give an expert a draw when he was up the exchange in the endgame.’
      • ‘White was sorely tempted by the smothering move 1.Nf7 + winning the exchange, and played it.’
      • ‘After a series of exchanges, he was left with 2 rooks and 6 pawns versus a rook, 2 knights and 5 pawns for Polgar.’
      • ‘It is less good to play this move after a preliminary exchange of knights on e4.’
      • ‘After the exchange of rooks on the 20th move, the star player from Indian Airlines tried to gain control on white's kingside only to further weaken the b2 square.’
      • ‘We have been playing that the player could refuse the exchange!’
      • ‘So, it turned out that White had to acquiesce to the exchange of Bishop for Knight after all!’
      • ‘After several exchanges, Gallagher was down 2 pawns in the rook + pawn ending, as he couldn't defend everything.’
      • ‘Even exchanges are fine, as are sacrifices with a clear goal in mind.’
      • ‘Karpov sought the rook exchange and Kamsky avoided it, ultimately winning.’
      • ‘Of course, if both sides stick their Rooks on that file, it might just lead to mass exchanges with no gain for either player.’
      • ‘White's a bit tied up so Buckley anticipates Ba3 and prepares in the event of a Bishop exchange to bring his Rook into the action on c5 or a5.’
      • ‘Black's opening play was rather dubious and Karpov has won the exchange.’
      • ‘After several exchanges, Bareev was left with a knight and 5 pawns to Junior's knight and 6 pawns, including a passed b-pawn.’
      • ‘Black sacrificed the exchange in the early middlegame, but this brought no joy.’
    8. 1.8 A building or institution used for the trading of a particular commodity or commodities.
      ‘the New York Stock Exchange’
      • ‘Finally, the CFTC exists primarily to protect commodities investors and the exchanges, areas where Enron was not particularly active.’
      • ‘PROS AND CONS But regulators, exchanges, and institutions should be wary of unintended consequences.’
      • ‘The five New York commodity futures exchanges will reopen today, a spokesman said yesterday.’
      • ‘That means two commodity exchanges, on one floor.’
      • ‘These are readily available free from several of the commodity exchanges.’
      • ‘In recent years, Hong Kong has lost market share to exchanges in London and New York, where spreads are narrower, on stocks that are listed on more than one exchange.’
      • ‘Traders on commodity exchanges are warning that a cold winter in the northern hemisphere could see prices, already up 38% since the start of the year, rise a lot further.’
      • ‘As the braying traders on the commodity exchanges in London and New York sold Rwanda's coffee and tin they were sealing the fate of peasants 6,000 miles away.’
      • ‘Neither the exchanges nor brokerage houses have taken up Levitt's challenge.’
      • ‘In particular circumstances the rules of an exchange or clearing house may be expressly incorporated into customers' contracts with members.’
      • ‘According to experts of the economic ministry, it has not been decided yet whether the grain is to be sold on commodity exchanges.’
      • ‘All exchanges and financial institutions had back-up power systems that allowed them to conduct business as usual.’
      • ‘Why this material is included while other material unique to, e.g., commodities or exchanges, is referenced out is not clear.’
      • ‘Currently, the SCE is one of the three licensed commodity exchanges in the country.’
      • ‘The reforms, however, should focus on improving the transparency of the exchange's operations and governance rather than imposing new rules.’
      • ‘A hedger locks in a price for a cash commodity by cross-hedging that commodity with a related commodity traded at one of the commodity exchanges.’
      • ‘Wyatt was a broker working for Itex, one of the nation's largest barter exchanges.’
      • ‘Agricultural commodity exchanges, for instance, are not subjected to the same insider trading legislation as securities.’
      • ‘Imagine multiple trading exchanges and other e-commerce vendors that must all collaborate and charge so a single transaction can be completed.’
      • ‘Indeed, the committee wants the European Commission to bar exchanges from owning clearing houses.’
      stock exchange, money market, bourse
      View synonyms


[with object]
  • 1Give something and receive something of the same kind in return.

    ‘we exchanged addresses’
    ‘he exchanged a concerned glance with Stephen’
    • ‘How many issues for discussion drop off the agenda until the rings have been safely exchanged?’
    • ‘It's not unusual, says one member of the team, to see passengers exchanging e-mail addresses at the end of a trip, probably the result of hours spent dining together.’
    • ‘The passengers, from Canada, South Africa, Australia and Germany, swap e-mail addresses and promise to exchange Sopranos DVDs and memorabilia.’
    • ‘If I have any problems, I can return or exchange it at any other store location, and it comes with a free roll of film.’
    • ‘No blows were exchanged, but many insults were flung, many tears were shed and many shoulders were cried on.’
    • ‘They seemed keen to keep in touch once they returned to India so we exchanged e-mail addresses.’
    • ‘There were blows being exchanged between the protesters and the police and so on.’
    • ‘Rather, I order that the parties exchange income tax returns and notices of assessment by the June 1 each year.’
    • ‘And thank you also to all the other men who entered the ring to exchange blows with me.’
    • ‘After exchanging the One Ring early in Return, the duo wind up in each other's arms on the slopes of scenic Mount Doom.’
    • ‘We exchanged email addresses, and I regularly receive correspondence from the boy and his family.’
    • ‘Roads prone to gridlocks and bumper-to-bumper traffic have both the traffic cop and the commuter blowing horns and exchanging a colourful repartee.’
    • ‘I've already received a few cards from Bloggers that have exchanged snail mail addresses with me.’
    • ‘They exchanged mailing addresses and became good friends after their chance meeting.’
    • ‘Kaimo and his cohorts are now exchanging legal blows with mobile-phone giants, including Globe Telecom and Smart Communications.’
    • ‘In this way, people can exchange e-mail addresses, names and phone numbers while shaking hands, with the data automatically written into both their PDAs, the paper said.’
    • ‘On Sunday enjoy a farewell breakfast with your new friends, it will give you a chance to exchange names and addresses with your fellow guests.’
    • ‘Amateur radio enthusiasts around the globe were running into problems trying to exchange e-mail addresses due to the lack of a Morse character for the @ symbol.’
    • ‘Spouses were not picked off the shelf rather the event served as a rendezvous for parents to exchange addresses for ‘further discussions’.’
    • ‘Dean Allan later told police the conversation got him wound up, and when his wife returned they exchanged words.’
    trade, swap, switch, barter, change, interchange
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 Give or receive one thing in place of another.
      ‘we regret that tickets cannot be exchanged’
      ‘I exchanged my overalls for a sober dark suit’
      • ‘Season tickets are exchanged for small stubs of paper, with window seats available in corporate boxes.’
      • ‘Let's be honest, business is about exchanging goods for cash; no genuine business would deliberately omit a mention of its products and a description of its operations.’
      • ‘Phones will be exchanged for cash or vouchers through the Community Foneback scheme.’
      • ‘If he accepts he will be exchanging the immediate risk of serving in the territories for the far greater danger of riding a tank into battle.’
      • ‘The vouchers are sent to the group who can either use them in store or exchange them for cash.’
      • ‘We've already tapped a long-term credit line with our bank, and I don't want to exchange equity for cash.’
      • ‘It chooses a January year-end, at which point a large mountain of Christmas cards has just been exchanged for cash.’
      • ‘A receipt given by the eSeva clerk becomes the valid ticket for the movie with the purchaser not having to exchange it for a ticket at the cinema hall before the show.’
      • ‘The catch is that these Asian export giants like Japan and China can't afford to just liquidate their dollar-holdings and exchange them for euros.’
      • ‘Newcomers could also exchange a ticket stub for a free karate lesson.’
      • ‘A trained shop assistant shows the correct and perfectly acceptable way to exchange money at the till’
      • ‘Every time somebody visits your opinion, you earn dooyoo miles, which can be exchanged for vouchers or cash.’
      • ‘About 100 dealers in the centre, the report said, were willing to exchange cash on the spot or transfer it to Macau.’
      • ‘Economic exchange via the market is thus a positive-sum game: everybody gains more than they put in because of increased efficiency.’
      • ‘Farm wives would use butter as cash, exchanging their home-churned product for merchandise at the general store.’
      • ‘They won't want to exchange large wads of cash at the bank and raise suspicions of money laundering.’
      • ‘The store isn't just a place to exchange cash for computers… it's a place to create a genuine emotional branding experience, one that lasts.’
      • ‘These tickets are then exchanged for prizes at predictably confiscatory rates.’
      • ‘This leaves people with the choice of either getting whiplash from being forced to sit in the very front row, or to exchange their ticket for a Silvercity gift certificate.’
      • ‘According to the company's norms the ticket is non-transferable nor can it be exchanged for cash.’


  • in exchange

    • As a thing exchanged.

      ‘at 8, he was carrying bags of groceries in exchange for a nickel’
      • ‘A school is set to give up some of its land for a housing development in exchange for a new sports field, it has been revealed.’
      • ‘If a new law is passed permitting sex in exchange for money to legally take place I believe many more people would stay safe.’
      • ‘For those families with larger families they should be able to phone for a larger bin in exchange for their existing one.’
      • ‘The emperor gave the two men a bag of gold coins in exchange for their promise to begin working on the fabric immediately.’
      • ‘Restaurants try to trick you out of a little more money in exchange for a lot more food.’
      • ‘Israel would have received in exchange an equivalent geographic area on the West Bank.’
      • ‘He said the men took him to a forest and threatened to kill him but he convinced them to let him go in exchange for the car.’
      • ‘At first we asked him to tell us the truth and then in exchange we'd ask the court to soften his punishment.’
      • ‘Liz is just joining a long line of celebrities who are happy to endorse unlikely products in exchange for the right fee.’
      • ‘Olivier has agreed to help him improve his French in exchange for help in English.’
      • ‘These contracts offer companies lower tariffs in exchange for the right to shut off their power in times of need.’
      • ‘Several then offered me bits of dried fish or hard-boiled eggs in exchange.’
      • ‘Thus, it was of no surprise that they demanded nothing in exchange for freeing the twelve men.’
      • ‘I remember it clearly - Jason asking someone to sponsor his site in exchange for an iBook.’
      • ‘The money offered in exchange for such abuse is too tempting for many of them.’
      • ‘And besides, they have been providing entertainment in exchange for a tin of dog food per day.’
      • ‘You might be prepared to take a lower salary in exchange for that kind of security about your future.’
      • ‘If anyone needs a Gmail account, I have half a dozen to give away in exchange for a donation to the charity of your choice.’
      • ‘Many of these make false promises about solutions they can provide in exchange for hefty fees that they charge.’
      • ‘He said the boy often cleaned planes in exchange for flight time and was very familiar with operations at the school.’


Late Middle English: from Old French eschange (noun), eschangier (verb), based on changer (see change). The spelling was influenced by Latin ex- ‘out, utterly’ (see ex-).