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A serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart.
- ‘It has been known that muscle fibers in a heart are arranged in such a way that their orientation changes continuously from endocardium to epicardium of the free wall.’
- ‘An echocardiogram showed that the tip of the pacemaker catheter extended through the right ventricular apical wall of the epicardium.’
- ‘The difference in the spacings in the top epicardium layer and the rest of the heart may indicate that sarcomere lengths in those regions are different.’
- ‘Reference to the pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, endocardium and valves, chordae, ventricular thicknesses, and aorta and major vessels may be included.’
- ‘Affected regions are characterized by a lacelike pattern of adipose infiltration, progressing from epicardium toward the endocardium, and by interposed streams of normal or slightly atrophie myocytes.’
Mid 19th century: from epi- ‘above’ + Greek kardia ‘heart’, on the pattern of pericardium.
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