The flora and fauna living on the surface of the bottom of a sea or lake.
- ‘Until the 1970s, the continental shelf of the Beaufort Sea off Alaska was also considered barren of rocky substrates and associated epibenthos.’
- ‘Values were predicted to be low among the crustacean-dominated epibenthos since we expected marsh detritus to be a prominent food resource.’
- ‘This overall form, together with the apparent restriction of Eurytholia fossils to calcareous deposits, suggests that the animal was not pelagic but belonged instead to the vagile epibenthos.’
- ‘As discussed above for the genus, this echinoid is interpreted to have lived upright as epibenthos, with the long axis perpendicular to the substrate.’
Early 20th century: from Greek epi ‘upon’ + benthos ‘depth of the sea’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.