1The properties of something in terms of energy.
- ‘Treadmill studies of polar bear energetics revealed that polar bears had higher costs of walking than predicted from general equations for mammals and that polar bears only reach maximum efficiency of walking as adults.’
- ‘In this section, we describe the energetics involved in ion conduction.’
- ‘This is clearly written, bringing in aspects of molecular-scale structure and function of components and energetics, set in the global context; it would serve as a good reference for students.’
- ‘Therefore in this scenario, the ease at which an electron is removed is just a question of energetics.’
- ‘This theoretical model does not include the energetics of the channel disassembly process.’
- ‘They calculate energetics of a proton wire in the electrostatic environment of a channel.’
- ‘Future molecular modeling simulations will hopefully provide insights into the energetics behind this process.’
- ‘These limitations have prevented us from providing a complete description, including energetics, of many biological events.’
- ‘These have focused primarily on the structures of the channels and the energetics and dynamics of their contents, which consist of explicit water molecules and one or a few ions in the channel with no applied potential.’
- ‘The energetics of proton transfer can be envisaged as a double-well potential where the proton is transferred from a donor to the acceptor.’
- ‘But the earthquake itself - the rupture process, the energetics and the regional stress balance - do not have an equation.’
2[treated as singular] The branch of science dealing with the properties of energy and the way in which it is redistributed in physical, chemical, or biological processes.
- ‘The leading theories of adhesion include the diffusion, electrostatic, surface energetics, and mechanical theories.’
- ‘During the past 20 years a large number of studies have examined the biomechanics and energetics of swimming in mammals.’
- ‘The experimental results confirm some aspects of conventional wisdom relating to dynamics and energetics, but reject others.’
- ‘A few broad general questions have been central to the study of the dynamics and energetics of animal swimming and flying since the field began.’
- ‘Major research projects in the energetics and environmental medicine, and the injury sciences areas produce health risk criteria and health risk assessment methods for the this program.’
- ‘‘This will introduce a new business culture in the sphere of energetics and will speed up the process of investment in new and modern technologies,’ he said.’
- ‘A recurring question in the study of fish biomechanics and energetics is the mechanical power required for tail-swimming at the high speeds seen among aquatic vertebrates.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.