Definition of endemic in English:



  • 1(of a disease or condition) regularly found among particular people or in a certain area.

    ‘areas where malaria is endemic’
    ‘complacency is endemic in industry today’
    • ‘The disease is still endemic in many Latin American countries and large epidemics of rubella occur periodically.’
    • ‘And there is no doubt the endemic poverty in the country is a barrier to innovation.’
    • ‘Again, it would be insane to pretend that everything is OK: poverty remains endemic.’
    • ‘When the eradication initiative was launched in 1988 polio was endemic in 125 countries.’
    • ‘Individual ineffectiveness, indiscipline and corruption remain endemic among modern police officers.’
    • ‘I can hardly describe the sense of anger and betrayal and sheer disillusionment now endemic in the staff.’
    • ‘The vast coastal swamps caused by centuries of deforestation made malaria endemic in many parts of central and southern Italy.’
    • ‘Malaria was endemic and contributed considerably to the degree of anaemia observed.’
    • ‘Parasitic infections are endemic among this population.’
    • ‘The district records one of the country's highest suicides rates, mainly due to endemic poverty.’
    • ‘The mistake has been endemic in this country when you would think we should know better.’
    • ‘Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic in North, Central, and South America.’
    • ‘Diseases endemic in Europe, such as typhoid and influenza, became major causes of morbidity and death.’
    • ‘The new president inherited an economy in ruins and corruption so endemic it had become a way of life.’
    • ‘Malaria is endemic and is a cause of premature death.’
    • ‘Unfortunately TB, Hepatitis B and HIV are all endemic in these parts of the world.’
    • ‘Why is political stability so elusive, and why are violence and rights violations so endemic?’
    • ‘Shortages have become endemic to many regions, as record drought and population sprawl sap rivers and aquifers.’
    • ‘Poverty is endemic in the South and it is spreading to the North.’
    • ‘Of course, it is not the only country to suffer from endemic corruption.’
    • ‘In fact the problem is so endemic that it hardly bares thinking about it, particularly by politicians.’
    widespread, prevailing, frequent, usual, common, general, universal, pervasive, extensive, ubiquitous, ordinary
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1[attributive]Denoting an area in which a particular disease is regularly found.
      • ‘The shaded area indicates the endemic zone of Argentine hemorrhagic fever’
      • ‘Examples calling for immunization include travel to endemic areas or intravenous drug use during pregnancy.’
      • ‘Because travellers to endemic areas are also at risk, healthcare providers should have an understanding of the spectrum of infection, how to diagnose it, and what the appropriate treatment is.’
      • ‘Attempts to control infection and disease in many endemic areas have not been uniformly successful.’
      • ‘Other countries may require proof of vaccination if a person is traveling from an endemic area to prevent introduction of the disease.’
      • ‘Typhoid fever immunization is recommended for travelers going to highly endemic areas in Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa.’
      • ‘Leishmaniasis should be considered in any person from an endemic area who has chronic localized skin lesions.’
      • ‘In highly endemic areas, at most 20 to 30 percent of deer ticks are infected with B. burgdorferi.’
      • ‘In one study, researchers found that these patients constitute 18 percent of Lyme disease cases in endemic areas during the summer months.’
      • ‘Resistance in V. cholerae is being encountered in most of the endemic areas 37,38.’
      • ‘Using drugs that simply kill off the worms in the human host, but do not prevent re-infection may seem futile when re-infection is almost inevitable in endemic areas.’
      • ‘However, travelers visiting endemic areas may be affected by this disease if they do not take proper precautionary hygienic measures.’
      • ‘Malaria should be the first consideration in a febrile traveler who has returned from an endemic area.’
      • ‘In patients from endemic areas, Lyme disease may be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone in the presence of erythema migrans.’
      • ‘It is indicated for use in laboratory workers involved with the virus and in persons planning to travel to endemic areas.’
      • ‘Therefore, daily self-examination is recommended for persons who engage in outdoor activities in endemic areas.’
      • ‘Andaman Islands is a highly endemic area for leptospirosis 4,5-8 with more than 50 per cent seroprevalence.’
      • ‘In contrast, many individuals who reside in endemic areas have fibrotic calcified nodes that are of no clinical importance.’
      • ‘Most cases of cutaneous myiasis in the United States occur in persons returning from these endemic areas.’
      • ‘In endemic areas the World Bank and others widely promote routine regular mass treatment of children with anthelmintics’
  • 2(of a plant or animal) native or restricted to a certain country or area.

    ‘a marsupial endemic to northeastern Australia’
    • ‘Most of the Chinese Impatiens species are endemic to the country or are restricted to a number of provinces.’
    • ‘This species is endemic to Crete and has stunning large flowers, tinted with warm purple.’
    • ‘About half of the species are endemic to these islands and are found nowhere else on Earth.’
    • ‘The endemic bryozoan genera tend to be more poorly sampled than the cosmopolitan genera.’
    • ‘Distributional patterns of the 78 most endemic genera are shown in Table 3.’
    • ‘Ornithologists describe them as endemic, birds that have evolved into distinctive species because of the insularity of their habitats.’
    • ‘However this is a highly endemic fauna, and may represent an ecological succession.’
    • ‘Researchers will determine if the species is endemic to Kalimantan.’
    • ‘Yet it is also a global hot spot of biodiversity, with scores of endemic species of amphibians, birds, mammals, plants, and reptiles.’
    • ‘All four species are endemic to Madagascar and are found primarily in rainforests.’
    • ‘During the past decades the health of the endemic species has been seriously threatened.’
    • ‘However, many other species are endemic to the North and many more seasonal migrants depend on northern environments for a significant part of their life history.’
    • ‘The Nene (also called Hawaiian) goose is Hawaii's state bird and endemic to the islands.’
    • ‘The Albertine Rift harbors more endemic mammals, birds, and amphibians than any other region in Africa.’
    • ‘If domesticated flocks are worthy of eagle protection, surely nearly extinct endemic taxa are as well.’
    • ‘Thus, it appears that this species also may be nearly endemic to cedar glades of the southeastern United States.’
    • ‘Many of the genera that evolved in the tropical and subtropical Americas remained endemic to the region.’
    • ‘Five percent of the flora is endemic to the Southern Appalachians.’
    • ‘About 221 plant species are endemic to this peninsular state.’


  • An endemic plant or animal.

    • ‘The plant communities of southern Appalachian wetlands include endemics that exist in the unique microhabitats of the region.’
    • ‘There are 2,827 natives, 1,318 non-natives, and 228 endemics.’
    • ‘Many endangered endemics of the Florida scrub are specialized for gaps.’
    • ‘Island endemics arise frequently from mainland ancestors in many taxonomic groups, so large numbers of phylogenetically independent comparisons can be made.’
    • ‘Madagascan endemics include Cophylinae and Scaphiophryninae; the former are predominantly tree frogs, the latter are terrestrial and semi-fossorial.’
    • ‘Most species of Metagentiana are herbaceous local endemics growing in alpine scrub, meadows and coniferous forests.’
    • ‘The prairies of the central plains likewise contain few endemics.’
    • ‘Despite these recent studies, however, detailed investigations of the effects of fire on most scrub endemics have not been carried out.’
    • ‘The endemics have been estimated to originate from about 120 successful original colonization events.’
    • ‘Divided by geographic region, local experts describe the climate, geology and soils of each community as well as the flora and fauna with special attention to endemics.’
    • ‘These could be due to the fact that most of the non-endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat.’
    • ‘Some of the endemics may always have been rare, but most are suffering from the loss of habitat, owing to the creation of citrus groves and other forms of development.’
    • ‘Many rare scrub endemics are associated with mechanical disturbances to the soil such as fire lanes, plow lines, sandy roads and gopher tortoise burrows.’
    • ‘Thus, low temperatures have led to selection for a high proportion of local endemics and species endemic to mountain peaks.’
    • ‘Schizoendemic taxa are vicariant endemics with identical chromosome numbers.’
    • ‘Island populations and insular endemics thus appear to be especially vulnerable to extinction due to genetic factors.’
    • ‘The origins of these island endemics are unknown.’
    • ‘They also reported that many of the limestone cedar glade endemics grow well under cultivation in a greenhouse mixture of calcareous topsoil and river sand.’


On the difference between endemic, epidemic, and pandemic, see epidemic


Mid 17th century (as a noun): from French endémique or modern Latin endemicus, from Greek endēmios native (based on dēmos people).