One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
A legislative body in the ruling assembly of Russia and of some other republics of the former Soviet Union.
Duma originally denoted pre-19th-century advisory municipal councils in Russia. It later referred to any of four elected legislative bodies established due to popular demand in Russia between 1906 and 1917. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, a new Duma was set up in 1993 as the lower chamber of the Russian parliament
- ‘Congress in the United States and the Duma in Russia became less willing to take risks in the interests of international security.’
- ‘It gave preparatory study to projects which would later be debated by the Duma and State Council.’
- ‘First he tried to form a new parliamentary group in the Duma, but failed.’
- ‘One was dominated by moderate bourgeois members of the Duma and would later become the Provisional Government.’
- ‘In 1999, his party barely made it into the Duma, winning a mere 6 percent of the vote.’
- ‘The deputation left the meeting under the protection of certain members of the Duma.’
- ‘In March, the Duma passed in a first reading a bill banning rallies in virtually all public places.’
- ‘In the Duma the liberals now called for a government responsible to parliament.’
- ‘An elected Duma and an Upper Chamber were set up.’
- ‘Meantime, resentment by extreme nationalists and Communists in the Duma was increasing.’
- ‘In the early 20th century, the czar called the Duma together and dissolved it at will.’
- ‘He is also going to be presenting his own legislation to the Duma, and he has to deal with taxes and corruption.’
- ‘His office at the Duma had pictures of him in a military uniform, mingling with soldiers and civilians.’
- ‘Within a month of the 1993 election, the number of independents in the Duma dropped from 141 to 47.’
- ‘The first such treaty dates back to 1990 but was never ratified by the Russian Duma.’
- ‘The Duma's ability to legislate much-needed reforms was constrained by a second chamber, the State Council, which was a much more conservative body.’
- ‘All parties in the Duma are relegated to playing the role of a minority party.’
- ‘The results of the parliamentary elections have thereby played a crucial role, because at least some from them could profit from the elections to the Duma.’
- ‘At that time, opposition was concentrated in the Supreme Council of Russia and later in the Duma, the lower chamber of parliament.’
- ‘With this support, the Duma decided to form a temporary government (the Provisional Government) to take the place of the tsar.’
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