Definition of dilution in US English:



  • 1The action of making a liquid more dilute.

    • ‘After appropriate dilution, ions were analysed directly using ICP.’
    • ‘In conjunction with a stopped-flow mixer, providing a time-resolved capability, this procedure was used to study the refolding of apo a-lactalbumin following dilution from guanidinium chloride.’
    • ‘The existence of apoplastic bypasses means that the extent of dilution of the solute by increasing transpiration flux is not always predictable.’
    • ‘In birds, the process of urinary concentration involves dilution of glomerular filtrate by the reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb of looped nephrons.’
    • ‘In addition, the effects of elements such as sulfur and phosphorous from dilution can be a source of trouble.’
    • ‘The isotope dilution or spike approach was a major advance in measuring small amounts of parent and daughter isotope in a sample.’
    • ‘Low nutrient concentration due to weathering and dilution with water or soil decreases the value of manure.’
    • ‘The solutions used in all the experiments were prepared by dilution from the dialyzed one.’
    • ‘If effusion is present, aspiration of the joint is recommended before the injection to prevent dilution of the injected hyaluronic acid.’
    • ‘Luminol working solutions with different pH values were prepared by dilution of the luminol stock solution with carbonate buffer or sodium hydroxide.’
    • ‘Hydrogen peroxide solutions for kinetic experiments were prepared by dilution of a 30% aqueous solution and were standardized by iodimetry.’
    • ‘Strangely, this chimes with homoeopathic beliefs about the way that remedies become more active by increased dilution in polar solvents like water.’
    • ‘But because this number is still far too high to detect individual molecules, significant dilution of samples is required.’
    • ‘Important routes to lipid vesicles are detergent removal techniques, such as dialysis or dilution.’
    • ‘Table 2 shows the percentage of protoplasts that expanded and burst due to the reduction in osmotic pressure of the medium by successive dilution of the sucrose content.’
    • ‘They're corrosive chemicals, but if you mix them with liquid and drink them, they will release friendly little oxygen bubbles in your stomach and dilution will counteract the corrosive effect.’
    • ‘While dilution reduced the tensile strength, the contrast medium had no effect as a sclerosing agent.’
    1. 1.1 The action of making something weaker in force, content, or value.
      ‘he is resisting any dilution of dogma’
      • ‘Finally, dairy producers must combat the threat of value dilution posed by private label products.’
      • ‘There is a need to avoid inappropriate dilution of content without undue rigidity.’
      • ‘‘In these circumstances, the nature and structure of public funding will have a pivotal role in underpinning both total content funding and preventing dilution by the commercial networks,’ says the report.’
      • ‘Values of concentration were corrected for dilution during extraction.’
      • ‘The effect of this is to further damage engineering competence characterised by a combination of ongoing staff reductions and the incremental dilution of engineering knowledge.’
      • ‘It presents law to psychology students in a manner that respects both its complexity and its depth; the use of a range of experts helps to prevent dilution of its content.’
      • ‘I can easily see the sense of cultural rape, or at least the dilution of tradition and value, that would be resultant of such global spiritual consumerism.’
      • ‘Although the band features players from the UK, Cameroon, France, Sierra Leone and Senegal, each member shares their musical foundation: open to influence, but without any dilution of content.’
      • ‘It should be said that even with the dilution of the Japanese forces it was still a very chancy thing that the Americans prevailed so successfully.’
      • ‘Coupled with dilution in ethical values there is this dramatic reduction in the obsession with the ritual.’
      • ‘All assay results were within one serial dilution of the average sensitivity values shown.’
      • ‘The dilution of medical authority has not been an entirely comfortable experience, and is not without certain drawbacks - for patients as well as practitioners.’
      • ‘Yet the league could add another playoff weekend, boost interest, sell more seats, and draw more ratings without any dilution in the quality of the tournament.’
      • ‘The old-timers meanwhile resisted dilution of the great franchise enjoyed by the name.’
    2. 1.2 A liquid that has been diluted.
      • ‘Cells from new zygotic colonies were resuspended in 1 ml water and appropriate dilutions were made.’
      • ‘All the solutions and dilutions of the compounds were prepared immediately before use.’
      • ‘The traditional method of making homeopathic dilutions is successively diluting the ‘active ingredient’ 1 to 10, and repeating.’
      • ‘It seems like salicylic acid might be a good thing for him to try or maybe a gentle dilution of tea tree oil.’
      • ‘Secondary antibodies, dilutions, and mounting conditions were as described above.’
      • ‘Yes, but you need to have molecules present to cluster, which in typical homeopathic dilutions, is not the case.’
      • ‘Do homoeopathic serial dilutions, containing no molecules of the original substance from which they were prepared, show intrinsic therapeutic effect?’
      • ‘It contains very little sulfite in the working dilutions.’
      • ‘Use distilled or deionized water for dilutions.’
      • ‘Growth was assayed by plating serial dilutions of cells.’
      • ‘These included entire cracked clams, two dilutions of the fluid leaked from cracked clams, and a synthetic mixture of the primary free amino acids found in clam mantle fluid.’
      • ‘Homeopathy involves treating illnesses with such extreme dilutions of herbs, animal substances and chemical compounds that frequently not one molecule of the diluted substance is left in the solution.’
      • ‘Samples stored at - 20°C in methanol were rehydrated with a series of ethanol dilutions and then replaced with 30% sucrose.’
      • ‘The septicaemic isolates were observed to produce cytotoxic changes in high dilutions of culture filtrate.’
      • ‘If this is too strong, you can use a dilution as weak as 1 tablespoon in 1 cup water.’
      • ‘All assays were made in triplicate and possible interference with cross-reactive substances was checked by analysing a range of dilutions.’
    3. 1.3 The degree to which a solution has been diluted.
      ‘the antibody was applied at a dilution of 1:50’
      • ‘The serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1: 10.’
      • ‘My research has taught me that the foaming dispenser works well with an eight-to-one dilution of water to soap.’
      • ‘In control experiments, preimmune serum obtained from identical rabbits was used at a dilution of 1: 1000.’
      • ‘Secondary antibodies were each used at a dilution of 1: 1000.’
      • ‘Immunohistochemistry was performed as described previously, using antibodies at a dilution of 1 / 1000.’
      • ‘Choosing the best wavelength from the mixture of wavelengths in the light signature and adjusting the dilution of the sample solution are critical for obtaining the right degree of sensitivity for each measurement.’
      • ‘Of the three, I would suggest that oxalic acid, at a dilution of 0.8%, is most efficacious.’
      • ‘The instructions recommend various dilutions of the stock solution for different films, so it will be necessary to do some experimentation to see what works best with the formula below.’
      • ‘For old stubborn stains, use a 10 to 1 dilution of liquid bleach.’
      • ‘Spot tests used three different dilutions (highest concentration on the left).’
      • ‘The primary antibody was used at a dilution of 1: 10 000.’
      • ‘Iodine bleach may also be used for a minute or two at a dilution of 1: 100.’
      • ‘All 26 dung samples provided correct results (true genotype) before dilution and at a dilution of 1 in 5.’
      • ‘Both antibodies were used at a dilution of 1: 500.’
      • ‘Each serum was assayed at a 1: 2 dilution in serum diluent, in duplicate.’
      • ‘It consists of isopropyl alcohol in aqueous solution at two different dilutions.’
      • ‘The antibody was used at a dilution of 1: 60,000.’
      • ‘At a dilution of 1: 1000, none of the highly immunized rabbit sera resulted in clear precipitation banding.’
      • ‘For measuring the antibodies in serum from pregnant women, serum samples were tested at a dilution of 1: 200.’
      • ‘I am able to warm it considerably by toning in selenium at a dilution of 1: 4.’
      extract, concentrate, concentration, quintessence, distillate, elixir, abstraction, decoction, juice, tincture, solution, suspension
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    4. 1.4Finance A reduction in the value of a shareholding due to the issue of additional shares in a company without an increase in assets.
      • ‘In other words, more onerous debt is being taken on and distributed to the market place, rather than equity; less dilution for the shareholders, at the cost of owning a company with a more fragile balance sheet.’
      • ‘Even if the acquisition was made for stock, shareholders may have suffered dilution.’
      • ‘Other companies control dilution by repurchasing shares when employees exercise options.’
      • ‘For instance, the company may not be earning enough to pay off its debts, or there could be sizeable share dilution in the offing, or perhaps there's a chance the assets will suffer a big write-off.’
      • ‘The debate has centered on the question of dilution - that is, the reduction in earnings per share that shareholders would see when the stock options are exercised and thousands of new shares are issued.’
      • ‘It should also provide for potential future investment on the part of new partners/shareholders along with the consequent dilution of ownership shares.’
      • ‘The company is to buy up to another $150m in shares and retire $50m in debentures, to offset dilution caused by employee stock options and convertible debt.’
      • ‘You will pay a higher price for our common stock than was paid by existing stockholders, and will experience immediate and substantial dilution.’
      • ‘If a company does not have a stock buyback program, then earnings will be reduced by both the cost of the options issued and dilution.’
      • ‘Some people have argued that the dilution is excessive, forcing shareholders to pay too high a price for whatever benefits may come from giving employees an ownership stake in the company.’
      • ‘In the U.S., companies often blunt the effect of dilution by buying back shares.’
      • ‘Employees' hopes are revived, and shareholders see much less dilution.’
      • ‘If that isn't bad enough, firms routinely buy back stock to avoid dilution of share prices when employees exercise the options.’
      • ‘While stock options offer management an incentive to perform well, overloaded stock-option accounts create the possibility of unwanted share value dilution.’
      • ‘Because many companies rely on stock options to pump up earnings, she takes a hard look at how the cost of options and their dilution to shareholders decrease the bottom line.’
      • ‘This would lead to additional shareholders' dilution.’
      • ‘Not only do the proposals undermine the pay-for-performance objective that is theoretically behind options compensation, but they also expose shareholders to double dilution.’
      • ‘With more equity to come, shareholders face further dilution.’
      • ‘The majority opinion has been that existing shareholders must be picking up the tab by allowing their returns to be reduced through dilution.’
      • ‘Be sure to look for a compelling explanation of why the rights issue and share dilution are needed as part of the recovery plan.’