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Any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, which are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells.
- ‘Status of various immune cells and intracellular secretion of cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry.’
- ‘Attracted by cytokines and growth factors, fibroblasts migrate into wound sites within several days of injury.’
- ‘Phagocytes themselves also secrete cytokines, which influence the behaviour of other cells.’
- ‘Administration of cytokines or cytokine antagonists alters only one aspect of a complex immune response.’
- ‘TNF is a cytokine, or cell protein, that acts as an inflammatory agent in rheumatoid arthritis.’
- ‘Numerous cytokines and growth factors have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.
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The definitions of ‘buddy’ and ‘bro’ in the OED have recently been revised. We explore their history and increase in popularity.