A cyclic version of the nucleotide guanosine monophosphate. In cellular metabolism, it is a secondary messenger affecting cell growth and division.
- ‘A second messenger of internal cellular communication - cyclic GMP, produced in response to nitric oxide - is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell contractility, growth, and differentiation.’
- ‘The carbon monoxide activates the enzyme guanylyl cyclase, as does nitric oxide, regulating the intracellular levels of the second messenger cyclic GMP, which in turn regulates cellular activity.’
- ‘We thought we could more strongly apply the brake on hypertrophy in the heart if we used sildenafil to prevent the breakdown of cyclic GMP.’
- ‘Guanylyl-cyclase activators are nitric oxide donors that increase cyclic GMP.’
- ‘The resulting vasodilation has been potentially attributed to inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, with resulting increases in intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP accompanied by decreases in Ca.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.