One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
A written account of the customs of a manor or other local community or large establishment.
- ‘Gradually a system of obligations and service emerged, especially relating to manorial agrarian management, and set down in records called custumals.’
- ‘The custumals of Ipswich and Yarmouth provided for fines, temporary suspension from, or even deprivation of, office in the case of sergeants who failed to perform their duties or who stirred up malice between members of the community.’
- ‘Most oaths are known only from undated but late versions recorded in the Ipswich Domesday books, although some of the key elements are found in the account of the setting up of self-government in 1200 or implied in the custumal.’
- ‘Hudson found the custumal in a mid-fifteenth century volume of memoranda known as the Book of Pleas, and this was the version he included in his publication.’
- ‘Even in smaller hamlets or regions of scattered farmsteads, forms of interdependence may be recognized in early laws and custumals.’
- ‘Although Norwich's custumal prohibited serfs from becoming freemen, it may be doubted that a thorough enquiry was made of the background of each applicant.’
- ‘Those of Maldon, it is stated in the sixteenth century recension of the custumal, were customarily made by bailiffs, burgesses, freemen, and commonalty.’
- ‘Notes: the term ‘meddle ‘is used by the custumal in a context that reflects etymological associations: the prohibition of middlemen in the retail of shellfish.’
- ‘In the former the earliest reference to officers of this title is in a chapter of the city custumal, perhaps the product of complaints c.1326 of unjust taxation; the chapter assigns them a role in tax collection henceforth.’
- ‘It is likely that the original account was written as an introduction or appendix to the custumal in the Domesday and also to the list of gild ordinances (probably untouched by the town clerk's theft).’
- ‘Precise statements of labour services owed by landholders to the lord of the manor were set out in ‘custumals’, documents produced in manorial courts under oath.’
Late 16th century: from medieval Latin custumale ‘customs book’, neuter of custumalis, from custuma ‘custom’.
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