The state of a substance when it is at the critical point, i.e. at critical temperature and pressure.
- ‘Fractured 0.5 cm thick sections were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series, substituted in 2-methyl - 2-propanol, and lyophilized in the critical state.’
- ‘Some materials that have experienced higher stress show significantly reduced frictional strength and a pattern of behaviour inconsistent with critical state concepts.’
- ‘Soft-sediment deformation involves complex interactions between discrete fracturing and diffuse bulk strain, described in terms of volume change and shear strain in a critical state mechanics framework.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.