1Relating to the ribs.
- ‘Mori has reported the vertebral, costal, and scapular origins as follows.’
- ‘The first rib may be shorter than usual, slender and connected with the second costal cartilage.’
- ‘The serratus anterior muscle usually arises from the first through eighth or ninth ribs and inserts onto the costal surface of the scapula, from its superior to its inferior angle.’
- ‘The liver was enlarged and extended 10 cm below the right costal margin.’
- ‘He had subsequent radical excision of the recurrent nodule, including surrounding abdominal wall, costal cartilages, and ribs.’
- ‘This suggestion is based on the observation that locomotion was the primitive function of the hypaxial muscles that are responsible for costal ventilation in modern amniotes.’
- ‘Physical examination confirmed a mass occupying the entire right side of the abdomen, which extended below both the costal margin and the iliac crest.’
- ‘This surgery is considered minimally invasive because no resection of rib or costal cartilage or stemotomy is needed.’
- ‘The angle between the costal fibers of the left diaphragm and the rib cage increased significantly in both groups and differed significantly between themselves.’
- ‘The rectus abdominis muscle inserts at the fifth through seventh costal cartilage, and it helps flex the vertebral column and provide support for the torso.’
- ‘The left leg electrode is positioned in the anterior axillary line, halfway between the costal margin and the crest of the ilium.’
- ‘The programme works by encouraging sufferers to use the costal diaphragm, which most people only use for singing.’
- ‘You may sometimes feel the edge of the caudate lobe, a congenital anomaly, to the right of the midline near the costal margin.’
- ‘However, costal patterns and umbilical shape could vastly improve these capacities.’
- ‘The transverse process of the seventh vertebra may be bifid, and occasionally the costal process is replaced by a cervical rib.’
- ‘This artery gave rise to two branches, one to the costal part of the diaphragm and the other to the suprarenal gland.’
- ‘They found that obliteration grade and costal pleural fibrosis score were significantly higher for the treated sides in the mechanical abrasion dogs, compared with the talc slurry-treated dogs.’
- ‘There are no transverse costal pits on the transverse processes of the eleventh and twelfth vertebrae.’
- ‘A more common variation in the sternum is asymmetry of the costal cartilages, which may articulate in an alternating pattern.’
- ‘The costal origin of the diaphragm was identified when the patient breathed to total lung capacity.’
- 1.1Anatomy Zoology Relating to a costa.
- ‘We investigated the in situ properties of the mitochondria of costal diaphragm and external intercostal muscles using the skinned fiber technique in 9 emphysematous and 11 age-matched control patients.’
- ‘Mean border width was determined by measuring the width of the lighter colored border on the anterior edge of the second costal scute, and dividing this measurement by the scute width.’
- ‘Unused costal diaphragm tissue was frozen for biochemical analyses.’
- ‘In awake dogs, Easton and coworkers observed significant postinspiratory inspiratory activity in the crural diaphragm and external intercostals, but little or no such activity in the parasternal intercostals and costal diaphragm.’
- ‘The neural and costal plates of the dorsal disk form as the outgrowths of these endoskeletal bones.’
Mid 17th century: from French, from modern Latin costalis, from Latin costa ‘rib’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.