Definition of conjugate in English:

conjugate

verb

Pronunciation /ˈkänjəˌɡāt//ˈkɑndʒəˌɡeɪt/
  • 1Grammar
    with object Give the different forms of (a verb in an inflected language) as they vary according to voice, mood, tense, number, and person.

    • ‘Oh yeah, I'm trying to learn how to conjugate verbs in Japanese now.’
    • ‘A French language lesson follows with the Brother conjugating the reflexive verb deshabiller, ‘to undress’.’
    • ‘And don't worry, even French four students occasionally forget how to conjugate verbs.’
    • ‘In a month, they were writing the alphabet, conjugating verbs, and making small sentences.’
    • ‘Tenses are confused, verbs are conjugated and there's a creek to swim in to give relief from the merciless sun.’
  • 2Biology
    no object (of bacteria or unicellular organisms) become temporarily united in order to exchange genetic material.

    ‘E. coli only conjugate when one of the cells possesses fertility genes’
    • ‘The solid line designates a plasmid that conjugates slowly but imposes a low cost of carriage, whereas the dashed line indicates a faster-conjugating plasmid that imposes a higher cost.’
    • ‘A number of such DNA-binding peptides conjugated to intercalating dyes have been synthesized and characterized in the authors' laboratory.’
    • ‘The phh1 single mutant is not completely sterile but is nearly sterile, whereas the msa1 deletion mutants conjugated efficiently even in nutrient-rich medium.’
    • ‘In autophagy, this protein is known to conjugate to the autophagosomal membrane through phosphatidylethanolamine lipidation and to take part in autophagosome formation and expansion.’
    • ‘This is essential to the survival of ciliate lineages; most ciliates cannot reproduce indefinitely by asexual fission, and eventually die out if prohibited from conjugating.’
    1. 2.1 (of gametes) become fused.
      • ‘Haploid cells conjugated to form zygotes, which then underwent meiosis.’
      • ‘Under the same conditions, wild-type cells conjugated and succeeded in producing spores.’
  • 3Chemistry
    with object Be combined with or joined to reversibly.

    ‘bilirubin is then conjugated by liver enzymes and excreted in the bile’
    • ‘The researchers decided to conjugate cholesterol to PEI to act as a hydrophobic lipid anchor, and it turned out that the cholesterol enhanced endocytosis of the complex.’
    • ‘In the liver it is conjugated with glucuronate which renders it water soluble.’
    • ‘After estrone hydroxylation, the various poly-hydroxy derivatives are conjugated with glucuronate or sulfate, or methylation occurs prior to excretion in urine.’
    • ‘Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia also may result from problems that occur after the bilirubin is conjugated in the liver.’
    • ‘Fluorescein is frequently conjugated to macromolecules via lysine residues using an isothiocyanate derivative or to sulfhydryl groups via a variety of chemistries.’

adjective

Pronunciation /ˈkänjəɡət//ˈkɑndʒəɡət/
technical
  • 1Coupled, connected, or related.

    • ‘One secondary terminal is connected directly to the spark plug of the parent cylinder while the other is connected to the second spark plug of the conjugate cylinder.’
    • ‘The conjugate phrase, ‘operates to a significant extent for the benefit’, directs attention to certain features of the Trust.’
    • ‘The principles governing the seismic behavior of structures are the conjugate laws of equilibrium and compatibility, and force-displacement relationships of structural components.’
    1. 1.1Chemistry (of an acid or base) related to the corresponding base or acid by loss or gain of a proton.
      • ‘Compounds containing this group are enols, and their conjugate bases - the C = COH anion - are enolates.’
      • ‘The most common buffers are mixtures of weak acids and their conjugate bases.’
      • ‘Its chromophore structure is also very simple: the conjugate base of p-hydroxythiocinnamate.’
      • ‘Of course, one can change the pH of the buffer by selecting other concentrations of acid and conjugate base, but the range of pH values over which a given buffer functions most effectively are close to the pK a of the acid.’
      • ‘In other words, the term pK a is that pH at which an equivalent distribution of acid and conjugate base (or base and conjugate acid) exists in solution.’
    2. 1.2Mathematics Joined in a reciprocal relation, especially having the same real parts and equal magnitudes but opposite signs of imaginary parts.
      • ‘He worked on conjugate functions in multidimensional euclidean space and the theory of functions of a complex variable.’
      • ‘Basically, the fifth coordinate was not observable but was a physical quantity that was conjugate to the electrical charge.’
      • ‘The energy of the final ‘annealed’ structure was then minimized using the conjugate gradient algorithm.’
      • ‘The quartic in y must factor into two quadratics with real coefficients, since any complex roots must occur in conjugate pairs.’
      • ‘Geometry optimization was performed by the use of steepest descent and conjugate gradient algorithms.’
    3. 1.3Geometry (of angles) adding up to 360°; (of arcs) combining to form a complete circle.
    4. 1.4Biology (of gametes) fused.

noun

Pronunciation /ˈkänjəɡət/
  • 1Biochemistry
    A substance formed by the reversible combination of two or more others.

    • ‘However, very few proteins form stable ubiquitin conjugates.’
    • ‘The protein concentration of the protein conjugate and the degree of labeling were calculated from the following equations according to the instructions of the manufacturer.’
    • ‘Phase III consists of further metabolism of glutathione conjugates.’
    • ‘Cytotoxicity of conjugates may be influenced by many factors, including drug loading, side-chain hydrophobicity and net charge, which may ultimately affect singlet oxygen generation.’
    • ‘Under similar experimental conditions, the carotene conjugate did not produce singlet oxygen.’
  • 2A mathematical value or entity having a reciprocal relation with another.

    • ‘There are two cams fixed on a common shaft that are mathematical conjugates of one another.’

Origin

Late 15th century (as an adjective): from Latin conjugat- ‘yoked together’, from the verb conjugare, from con- ‘together’ + jugum ‘yoke’.

Pronunciation

conjugate

Verb/ˈkɑndʒəˌɡeɪt/

conjugate

Adjective/ˈkɑndʒəɡət/