Definition of congener in English:

congener

noun

  • 1A thing or person of the same kind or category as another.

    • ‘No one is my congener.’
    • ‘Its congener is a report on Taino Indian beliefs, produced for Christopher Columbus by Ramón Pané, a Catalan friar on the island of Hispaniola.’
    • ‘She may not be your congener.’
    • ‘Must I turn a blind eye to the tears caused by those who call themselves - and are to some degree - my congeners, even if they too are survivors of Auschwitz?’
    1. 1.1 An animal or plant of the same genus as another.
      ‘these birds or their congeners may be found in East Africa’
      • ‘Most studies of interspecific competition consider sympatric congeners because it is assumed that closely related species tend to compete more strongly.’
      • ‘Frigatebirds may kill chicks and eggs of conspecifics and congeners.’
      • ‘For example, interspecific agonistic interactions select for dull-colored male flycatchers that experience less interference from more aggressive, sympatric congeners.’
      • ‘These results agree with other studies comparing native congeners, which also had qualitatively similar seed bank strategies.’
      • ‘They studied congeners, presumed sister species in many cases, having both minimal plumage differences and superficially similar primary vocalizations.’
      • ‘Although its higher taxonomy remains controversial, E. texana has been placed in the family Limnadiidae with two other genera and 15 congeners.’
      • ‘North American populations of Hypomesus transpacificus, a congener of H. pretiosus, spend the entire life-cycle in freshwater.’
      • ‘In the context of physiological determinants of vertical zonation, note that many of the more coldadapted porcelain crabs could not withstand the habitat temperatures experienced by more warm-adapted congeners.’
      • ‘For example, along the subtidal to intertidal gradient, species replacements are common, and there are many examples of one species in a genus replacing a congener over relatively small vertical ranges where thermal gradients exist.’
      • ‘Comparisons with its lowland congener further suggested that reliance of M. arizonicum on asexual reproduction may place this moss at a disadvantage in competition for suitable establishment sites at lower elevations.’
      • ‘One can rapidly survey the appearance and geographic ranges of congeners, thus underscoring an outstanding feature of the volume-the ease with which information can be extracted.’
      • ‘Although cryptic species have often been discovered, they are often themselves wide-ranging, and frequently sympatric with congeners.’
      • ‘Even when reproductive periods were evaluated separately, there were only two differences in the fractions of animal and plant foods in the diets of those congeners.’
      • ‘Similar to its congeners, this sexually dimorphic species is hypothesized to be resource-defense polygynous.’
      • ‘If growth rates are sensitive to such selection, they should be more rapid in this species than in low-latitude or low-altitude congeners, and the nestling period should also be shortened.’
      • ‘In its introduced range, in the absence of its two slightly larger congeners, as well as of other morphologically similar potential competitors, does the small Indian mongoose increase in size?’
      • ‘Furthermore, protection of paternity does not explain why male Bucephala exclude conspecific females and subadults, congeners, and other species with similar diets from their territories.’
      • ‘Though a number of studies have found lower levels of genetic variation in rare, narrowly distributed species compared to their more widespread congeners, several studies have found the opposite result.’
      • ‘Other studies have shown that widespread congeners might have an advantage over their rare congeners, by attracting more pollinators, having better competitive ability or having greater genetic diversity.’
      • ‘Other species also may refrain from calling, especially if they live in noisy environments, are likely to attract predators, or lack sympatric congeners with which they might hybridize.’
  • 2A minor chemical constituent, especially one that gives a distinctive character to a wine or liquor or is responsible for some of its physiological effects.

    • ‘The relative standard deviation for the major PCBs for repeat analyses of plasma samples was approximately 20% for most congeners.’
    • ‘That said, vodka is relatively free from additives known as congeners that are believed to have hangover-inducing potential.’
    • ‘As a rule, the more expensive your alcohol is, the greater the chance that it's been through a comprehensive distillation process to filter out many of its congeners.’
    • ‘Concentration responses with individual congeners were evaluated with the rank correlation test.’
    • ‘Ingredients called congeners, which give many types of alcohol their flavor, also can cause headaches.’
    • ‘As mentioned, congeners are a factor in causing hangovers.’
    • ‘This paper addresses the effects of these congeners only; heavy metal effects are not analyzed.’
    • ‘The darker the drink, the more congeners and other hangover-causing substances you'll imbibe, so tread warily around ports and heavy red wines.’
    • ‘Dark-coloured drinks, such as brandy, red wine and whisky, contain toxic additives called congeners, formed during fermentation.’
    • ‘Enzymes collected from around the world are being investigated to determine their specific tastes for certain PCB configurations, or congeners.’
    • ‘Highest in congeners are drink spirits such as whiskey, scotch, bourbon, port and brandy.’
    • ‘The latter contain higher concentrations of toxic fermentation by-products called congeners, which add taste but hang around longer in your body.’
    • ‘One of the differences between spirits such brandies and whiskies made from grapes or grain and tequila is that the Mexican spirit is virtually free of congeners.’
    • ‘Tannins are one form of congener, so red wine will be worse for you than white wine.’
    • ‘As such, the results presented here provide a hint that complex 5 and its congeners could prove useful in the fabrication of electrochemical sensors.’
    • ‘Some alcoholic drinks, namely port, brandy and plonk are loaded with additives known as congeners that have their own role to play in the thick head and general foulness a big night out can induce.’
    • ‘The lower the strength of the raw brandy, the richer it will be in the delicious, fruity, hangover-inducing congeners which provide all spirits with their fundamental character.’
    • ‘Drinking plenty of water before going to bed helps counteract dehydration and dilutes the congeners; replacing lost fluids by drinking water, fruit juices, or tea the morning after might also reduce the intensity of a hangover.’
    • ‘Detection rates and wet weight concentrations varied widely for organochlorine pesticides and PCB congeners.’
    • ‘Vodka has very few congeners and bourbon has quite a bit.’

Origin

Mid 18th century: from Latin, from con- ‘together with’ + genus, gener- ‘race, stock’.

Pronunciation

congener

/kənˈjēnər//kənˈdʒinər/