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Shape (metal) while it is cold.
- ‘Some age-hardening alloys (copper-beryllium) do not develop full hardness unless they are cold-worked before aging.’
- ‘Litespeed's own little secret is ‘cold-working’ the tubes - carving and cutting them at temperatures that are far below normal, eliminating the use of excessive heat, which weakens the metal.’
- ‘Twinning is a characteristic feature of the cold-worked and annealed alloy.’
- ‘For a cold-worked material the Meyer hardness is essentially constant and independent of load, while the Brinell hardness decreases as the load increases.’
- ‘This process involves using cold-worked sheets for preparing blanks by flame annealing the Tim whilst the disc is rotated.’
- ‘In all cases, the unit propagation energies are about equal to or greater than those of the unwelded base metal in the cold-worked tempers.’
- ‘For most coppers and copper alloys, the tensile strength of the hardest cold-worked temper is approximately twice the tensile strength of the annealed temper.’
- ‘Plate, bar, wire, rod and tube also are available in the solution-annealed temper, the annealed and cold-worked heat-treatable temper, and the mill-hardened temper.’
- ‘Welding of cold-worked alloys anneals the heat-affected zone and eliminates the strength produced by cold working.’
- ‘For aerospace applications, fabricators can take advantage of the alloys strain-hardening characteristics and use them in highly cold-worked condition.’
- ‘The annealing temperature for most cold-worked magnesium alloys is about 650°F.’
- ‘All ferrous martensites show very high dislocation densities of the order of 10 to 10 cm, which are similar to those of very heavily cold-worked alloys.’
- ‘The treatment is applied to forgings, cold-worked sheets and wire, and castings.’
- ‘Litespeed uses the same cold-worked, flawless 3AL / 2.5V titanium found in many of its frames, with a few unique features like an offset clamp that keeps bolts well out of the way of accidental knee bashes.’
- ‘This means that less thermal energy is required to nucleate a heavily cold-worked metal than a lightly cold - worked one.’
- ‘If, however, rolling is continued much below 600°C, recrystallization does not keep pace with the deformation and the metal is cold-worked.’
- ‘For example, Peterson points out, ‘These steels cold work like crazy.’’
The shaping of metal while it is cold.
- ‘The hardest temper of foil, available in any gage and designated H19, is an extra-hard temper that has received a high degree of cold work.’
- ‘The severely cold worked or full-hard condition is usually obtained with cold work equal to about 75% reduction in area.’
- ‘Cold work increases the internal energy of the metal, and the greater the cold work the higher the residual internal energy.’
- ‘Only cold work with subsequent heat-treatment involving recrystallisation can be employed to refine large grained material.’
- ‘Most wrought alloys are available in various cold worked conditions, which have room temperature strengths and fatigue resistances that depend on the amount of cold work more than on alloy content.’
- ‘No critical points exist and such steels (e.g.18% chromium irons) are not amenable to normal heat treatment, except recrystallisation after cold work.’
- ‘Tool steels are groups into six types: high speed, hot work, cold work, shock resisting, special purpose and water hardening.’
- ‘The latter, generally referred to as ‘non heat-treatable’ alloys depend primarily on cold work to increase strength.’
- ‘It does appear, however, that in preparation for deep drawing of aluminum cans, annealing to polygonize the cold work substructure is employed to raise the strain hardening coefficient.’
- ‘These stresses may be provided by cold work, residual stresses from fabrication, or externally applied loads.’
- ‘Increasing cold work, within limits, increases the strength obtained during age hardening.’
- ‘Alloy 2091 depends less on cold work to attain its properties than does 2024.’
- ‘If extra vacancies are present - they may be put in by quenching, irradiation or cold work - diffusion processes take place at very low temperatures.’
- ‘Shot- or grit-blasted surfaces often exhibit poor corrosion performance, not from induced cold work but from embedded contaminants.’
- ‘Small amounts of cold work have no effect on fatigue resistance; larger amounts reduce it.’
- ‘The weld apparently does not disturb the effects of cold work or other forms of mechanical or thermal treatment.’
- ‘The steel stores specialize in selling premium and standard tool, die and mold steels with a focus on cold work tool steels and on local customer service.’
- ‘Another important application is for springs, where often the required mechanical properties are obtained simply by heavy cold work, i.e. hard drawn spring wire.’
- ‘The process of diffusion is assisted by mechanical deformation of the grains by hot- or cold work followed by annealing.’
- ‘A wide variety of mechanical characteristics, or tempers, are available in aluminum alloys through various combinations of cold work and heat treatment.’
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