Which Joe gave his name to ‘sloppy joes’? We look at five interesting sandwiches and their lexical origins.
1A place of work where membership in a union is a condition for being hired and for continued employment.
- ‘In any sport the teams at the bottom stagnate if you have a closed shop.’
- ‘On Saturday it will become the longest strike, surpassing the 29-day strike in 1953 that established a closed shop.’
- ‘Promising to reform the law profession, he said there should be no closed shops, no restrictive practices and no artificial barriers in access to or delivery of legal services.’
- ‘This is not setting up the American system of closed shops at all, as he said last night.’
- ‘Some business sectors in Asia were once regarded by the West as a closed shop, but deregulation is now in full stride as corporate and political leaders strive to restructure and increase competitiveness.’
- ‘How accountants would howl at this threat to their cosy closed shop, but even the most intransigent practice must see such an innovation would free their profitable management services from the taint of undue influence.’
- ‘The Pharmaceutical Society last night rejected a claim that it is operating a closed shop by stopping a new pharmacy degree course for 50 students going ahead.’
- ‘They are operating like a closed shop and yet you cannot operate without them.’
- ‘He is said to have shredded the letters, and the sources claimed that the national team was now a closed shop where new people and ideas were not welcome.’
- ‘The days of strikes without ballots, mass picketing, closed shops and secondary action are over.’
- ‘The Publish-Or-Perish syndrome has always been a fact of life for academics, and in earlier times was the subject of much amusement both within and without the fairly closed shop of the scientific world.’
- ‘Even after the anti-union laws, which outlawed closed shops, Steve continued to apply this.’
- ‘Outside of the skilled trades, unions had difficulty monopolizing the labor supply, and strikes were often a necessary tactic in gaining union recognition or a closed shop.’
- ‘Undoubtedly the freedom of association provisions were drafted with the intent of attacking unions, to break down so-called closed shops.’
- ‘As he pointed out, the media tends to be a closed shop, lacking ethnic and ideological diversity.’
- ‘It does not return compulsory unionism, awards, arbitration or closed shops.’
- 1.1in singular A system whereby a closed shop applies.‘the outlawing of the closed shop’
- ‘He alienated his workforce, and when they unionised and campaigned for the closed shop, he destroyed the union during a 13-week strike and lockout.’
- ‘The interested amateur is likely to be repelled and hurt by this attitude of closed-shop trade-unionism.’
- ‘By contrast, union members - especially in closed-shop industries - cannot simply renounce their union memberships, unless they're also willing to quit their jobs.’
- ‘By its very nature, however, and by the internal closed-shop culture it inhabits, news media tends to only give space to a limited number of opinions.’
- ‘To those on the right who argue that that is a return to compulsory unionism or a replica of the closed shop system in America, I say that that is total nonsense.’
- ‘We have made the first crucial changes in trade union law to remove the worst abuses of the closed shop, to restrict picketing to the place of work of the parties in dispute, and to encourage secret ballots.’
- ‘When the arbitration board handed down its award, the longshoremen were granted hiring halls jointly controlled by the ship owners and the union, but with a union dispatcher that in practice assured the closed shop.’
- ‘The closed shop was outlawed in local and public employment, and public employees were restricted in the unions they could join.’
- ‘I look forward to the Government applying the same attitude to student unions, law societies, and all other closed-shop unions and professions where it is compulsory to join.’
- ‘While the trade unions still control access to employment in the sector through a closed-shop policy, they are in no position to present any serious challenge.’
- ‘Bosses could be forced to sack anyone who did not toe the union line because of the closed shop system.’
- ‘There are no restrictions to practice in this market, there is no closed shop and there are no cosy arrangements whereby there are limited panel numbers.’
- ‘The way in which these people are selected and appointed is almost a closed shop and I can't see that changing.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.
From Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, discover surprising and intriguing language facts from around the globe.
The definitions of ‘buddy’ and ‘bro’ in the OED have recently been revised. We explore their history and increase in popularity.