A number of atoms bonded together to form a closed loop in a molecule.
- ‘A ring compound, also called a cyclic compound, is one whose molecules contain atoms chemically bonded together to create a closed chain or circle.’
- ‘In general, these two closed chains are linked catenanes, and the type of linkage reflects a topological property of the original substrate.’
- ‘The topology of a closed chain does not change during the large-scale conformational rearrangement-the DNA chain does not break or pass through itself in this process-.’
- ‘A phantom chain utilized in numerical simulations of polymers can explore all subspaces, whereas a real closed chain forming a figure-of-eight knot, for example, is confined to a subspace corresponding to this knot type only.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.