Definition of circulation in US English:

circulation

(also cir., circ.)

noun

  • 1Movement to and fro or around something, especially that of fluid in a closed system.

    ‘an extra pump for good water circulation’
    • ‘Drain holes prevent overwatering and help provide air circulation necessary for healthy plant growth.’
    • ‘A fluid flow model involving deep circulation of mineralizing fluids beneath the Carboniferous basins was suggested.’
    • ‘Good air circulation will encourage plant health in a confined area, and I would suggest adding a small fan to gently move the air, if needed.’
    • ‘What could have caused deep waters to form in the low latitudes and so markedly disrupt the usual system of deep water circulation?’
    • ‘Air circulation and water will keep the microorganisms healthy and working.’
    • ‘Leave your pet at home with plenty of water and air circulation during the peak summer season.’
    • ‘You end up with hard soil, with poor air circulation and poor water drainage that plants can't grow well in.’
    • ‘According to O'Donnell, the system works through the circulation of lukewarm water in a network of pipe loops embedded in the floor.’
    • ‘Rapid data circulation through digital information systems means that distance appears to shrink and time seems to collapse.’
    • ‘We have little sense, however, of how these asylums fit into general systems of child circulation in specific historical contexts.’
    • ‘If any aspect of city life offers an opportunity for ‘reading the city’, it is the systems of movement and circulation which constitute urban transport.’
    • ‘Avoid crowding your planted pots close together, as your plants need good air circulation and growing room.’
    • ‘One may reasonably assume that fluid circulation inside unconsolidated sediments must play an active role in settling sedimentary structures.’
    • ‘The tides, weather systems and ocean circulation all influence the sea level over days to years.’
    • ‘It does this through convection, a process through which heat is transferred during the automatic circulation of fluid.’
    • ‘In convection, heat is transferred through air or fluid circulation.’
    • ‘The circulation of fluids that forms this new class of hydrothermal vents is driven by heat generated when seawater reacts with mantle rocks, not by volcanic heat.’
    • ‘Through this process, ocean circulation acts like a heat pump and determines our climate to a great extent.’
    • ‘Under the newly funded project, scientists have designed a system for monitoring coastal circulation and movement of distinct water types.’
    • ‘To allow water circulation between the compartments, nine holes had been made in the partition.’
    flow, motion, movement, course, passage
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 The continuous motion by which the blood travels through all parts of the body under the action of the heart.
      • ‘Stretching is a good way to keep muscles limber and to increase blood circulation during travel.’
      • ‘Friction from rubbing salt over the body improves circulation, sloughs off dead cells, and softens the skin.’
      • ‘Health experts are finding out that some of the chemicals in cocoa can have a positive effect on the heart and blood circulation.’
      • ‘Unfortunately, none of these will fix or eliminate the damaged veins that hinder proper circulation of blood through the body.’
      • ‘The blood circulation is a closed system in which the pressure varies constantly.’
      • ‘This bed may ease the aches of hip dysplasia and arthritis and improve blood circulation.’
      • ‘As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues.’
      • ‘Among the benefits of massage are relaxed muscles and nerves, increased circulation, lowered blood pressure and improved flexibility.’
      • ‘Exercise helps to regulate blood pressure and improve circulation, reducing the risk of blood clots.’
      • ‘Physically, it is thought to improve circulation and stimulate red blood cells.’
      • ‘This improves circulation, relieves pain, and relaxes tension in the muscles.’
      • ‘The treatment helps soothe irritation and inflammation, stimulate blood circulation and strengthen the immune system and the lymphatic system.’
      • ‘The process, said Sam, would rejuvenate my skin, and might help with water retention and circulation.’
      • ‘The body shuts down blood circulation to the feet, to prevent excessive loss of body heat.’
      • ‘Did you know poor circulation can cause water retention?’
      • ‘Cellulite develops when excess weight, poor circulation, or water retention weakens the connective tissue beneath your skin.’
      • ‘People with serious burns need to be closely monitored and often require intravenous fluids to help their circulation.’
      • ‘Fluid and proteins leak out of the blood vessels during blood circulation in the body.’
      • ‘Also, improving overall health through diet and exercise with also improve blood flow and circulation.’
      • ‘To ensure proper circulation, drink adequate fluids, wear loose clothing, and, if possible, walk every half hour, or at least flex and extend your ankles.’
    2. 1.2 The movement of sap through a plant.
  • 2The public availability or knowledge of something.

    ‘his music has achieved wide circulation’
    • ‘Academic science depends on the public circulation of knowledge and research.’
    • ‘This footage is in wide circulation.’
    • ‘There are more than 250 million guns in public circulation in the U.S.’
    • ‘The school's director was extremely pleased with the wide circulation of the film and its international reception.’
    • ‘Another story to achieve widespread circulation is the one of the motorist caught exceeding the limit by a speed camera in Cheshire.’
    • ‘I believe he has undermined the participatory principle of democracy in calling for the draft gender policy to be withdrawn from public circulation.’
    • ‘Given its very wide circulation, this false statement may easily prejudice my trial.’
    • ‘This will ensure that the best books will have the widest circulation.’
    • ‘This revised and enlarged edition was the form in which the book reached wider circulation and received much critical attention.’
    • ‘Whyte's book did not have a wide circulation among the public.’
    • ‘The press were quick to pick it up, granting it wide circulation.’
    • ‘The province is halting the production of any new books-on-tape for public circulation, while existing material is still available libraries.’
    • ‘Media diversity is a good thing, only inasmuch as it provides an opportunity for the unrestricted circulation and clash of ideas.’
    • ‘Further speeches served to augment his stature and collections were published and enjoyed wide circulation.’
    • ‘His theories had wide circulation in India and Russia, and he was welcomed personally by Nehru and other leaders in India.’
    • ‘Print gave rise to the mass reproduction and circulation of information with wide reaching consequences in all fields.’
    • ‘Back in my days, when LSD was in wide circulation, its reliability was much greater.’
    • ‘These radical shifts in policy and practice demand the widest circulation of the report.’
    • ‘Although Cane did not enjoy wide circulation, it influenced a whole generation of Harlem Renaissance writers.’
    • ‘In the early coverage of the crisis, how many false rumors received wide circulation in the widespread press?’
    dissemination, spreading, communication, transmission, making known, putting about
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1 The movement, exchange, or availability of money in a country.
      ‘the new coins go into circulation today’
      • ‘Since 2001, American coins have been withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘During the first stage, the goal was simply to introduce the national currency and establish control over monetary circulation.’
      • ‘To provide a brief explanation of how the money system works: The bankers loan all the money into circulation, at interest.’
      • ‘The Treasury Department estimates that 60 percent of U.S. currency is held overseas, where Supernotes seem to be in wider circulation.’
      • ‘Many Iraqis have lost confidence in the only other bank note in wide circulation, the 10,000 dinar bill.’
      • ‘The bank, concerned about deflation, has pumped a lot of money into circulation in the past couple of years.’
      • ‘The last gold coins intended for normal circulation in Thailand were struck in 1894.’
      • ‘This money would re-enter into circulation as financial institutions invest it in other capitalistic ventures.’
      • ‘He said the closure of the branches would lead to restructuring and improvement of the efficiency of money circulation.’
      • ‘Convinced of the benefits to be gained from the increased circulation of money, he printed ever larger numbers of bank notes.’
      • ‘That's how they got the counterfeit money into circulation.’
      • ‘The government today outlined how the euro would be brought into circulation if it won public support in a referendum.’
      • ‘Approximately 670,000 pounds sterling of base silver money was withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘That's what Las Vegas was made for, to get illegal money back into circulation again.’
      • ‘During the changeover period there will be a significant increase in the movement of cash as the euro is distributed and Irish currency is withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘That's just a small amount of extra money that came into circulation.’
      • ‘The king found that there would be no harm in having free circulation of money, and that this would in fact increase commerce and exchange.’
      • ‘It puts new money into circulation which it hopes will flow to the bond market.’
      • ‘The gang plotted to put drugs money into normal circulation through betting.’
      • ‘Euro notes and coins enter circulation in 12 European Union countries, in the biggest monetary changeover in history.’
    2. 2.2in singular The number of copies sold of a newspaper or magazine.
      ‘the magazine had a large circulation’
      • ‘Magazine circulations are either static, growing for some newer titles, or slowly sliding.’
      • ‘Car, fashion, and other consumer product magazines in China are achieving high circulation.’
      • ‘Ullah was a paper published in a journal, which does not appear to have had a very wide circulation, called Preparative Biochemistry.’
      • ‘Does your publication only have 10,000 circulation?’
      • ‘With regard to newspaper circulations, you incorrectly note that the Newcastle Herald and the Gold Coast Bulletin topped the regional growth stakes.’
      • ‘A real problem has been The Sun-Herald, which has shed readers and circulation at an alarming rate.’
      • ‘Its flagship, The Daily Mirror, achieved a world record circulation of more than five million in the mid-1960s.’
      • ‘But now the three newspapers with the highest circulations in the country are USA Today, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal, all publications that are distributed nationally.’
      • ‘Rates vary and are typically based on the publication's circulation and on what the competition charges.’
      • ‘Is there any national publication of comparable circulation and prominence that has taken these positions?’
      • ‘The Arizona Republic and the East Valley Tribune were selected due to their wide circulation in the Phoenix Metro-East Valley area.’
      • ‘Newspaper circulations everywhere have been falling for decades.’
      • ‘Zimpapers has been losing money as circulation figures decline due to its pro-government stance.’
      • ‘Stars on Sunday has set itself extremely ambitious targets for circulation and advertising revenue.’
      • ‘Financial woes and low circulation had plagued the paper for some time before the takeover.’
      • ‘Even with reduced readership and circulation, they still have the largest number of paying customers, who are much coveted by advertisers.’
      • ‘I think the presenter was reading from one of the national tabloids, which, as we've come to expect, print anything that might hike up their circulation.’
      • ‘The Independent newspaper said yesterday the tabloid was exploiting the case to boost its circulation.’
      • ‘The magazine, which is distributed free of charge, increased its circulation to 313,923.’
      • ‘The United States Postal Service requires all publications to publish a statement of ownership, management and circulation.’
      distribution, readership
      View synonyms

Phrases

  • in (or out of) circulation

    • 1Available (or unavailable) to the public; in (or not in) general use.

      ‘there is a huge volume of video material in circulation’
      • ‘Tickets are now in circulation and are available from any committee member.’
      • ‘Sponsorship cards were also in circulation on the day and still available for anyone who wishes to donate.’
      • ‘At present, there are over 190 copies of the video in circulation.’
      • ‘The draft document should be in circulation by December, with the final document ready to be presented to government by May next year.’
      • ‘Up to the 16th century, the amount of cash in circulation was more or less determined by the amount of gold discovered.’
      • ‘In normal circumstances, the amount of money in circulation should have gone up by about £400m since this time last year.’
      • ‘The memory cell remains in circulation, ready to respond to reintroduction of the antigen.’
      • ‘Despite its reputation as a cult classic, Blue Velvet has nevertheless been out of circulation for years.’
      • ‘The scheme has taken more money out of circulation than I expected.’
      • ‘There are at any moment in Silicon Valley about 10,000 business plans in circulation, looking for money.’
      around, about, in existence, current, going on, prevailing, prevalent, widespread, pervasive, endemic, happening, in the air, abroad
      View synonyms
      1. 1.1Used of a person who is seen (or not seen) in public.
        ‘Anne had made a good recovery and was back in circulation’
        • ‘My officers are putting a major effort into driving down crime by taking large numbers of criminals out of circulation.’
        • ‘The convicted smuggler reveals this was one of a number of ‘sting’ operations arranged with the authorities, some of which conveniently took rival gangsters out of circulation.’
        • ‘Habitual teenage criminals are sent straight back home to continue terrorising their districts rather than being taken out of circulation.’
        • ‘With his newly-found free time, Rogers took stock of himself - 58, healthy, educated - and realized he wasn't ready to be taken out of circulation.’
        • ‘They are dangerous, they are callous and they need taking out of circulation as quickly as possible.’
        • ‘The councillor said the drop in crime figures was down to the fact that some people had been taken out of circulation for the past six months.’

Origin

Late Middle English (denoting continuous distillation of a liquid): from Latin circulatio(n-), from the verb circulare (see circulate).

Pronunciation

circulation

/ˌsərkyəˈlāSH(ə)n//ˌsərkjəˈleɪʃ(ə)n/