Definition of circulation in English:

circulation

(also circ., cir.)

noun

  • 1Movement to and fro or around something, especially that of fluid in a closed system.

    ‘an extra pump for good water circulation’
    • ‘Leave your pet at home with plenty of water and air circulation during the peak summer season.’
    • ‘One may reasonably assume that fluid circulation inside unconsolidated sediments must play an active role in settling sedimentary structures.’
    • ‘Avoid crowding your planted pots close together, as your plants need good air circulation and growing room.’
    • ‘The circulation of fluids that forms this new class of hydrothermal vents is driven by heat generated when seawater reacts with mantle rocks, not by volcanic heat.’
    • ‘In convection, heat is transferred through air or fluid circulation.’
    • ‘Air circulation and water will keep the microorganisms healthy and working.’
    • ‘Drain holes prevent overwatering and help provide air circulation necessary for healthy plant growth.’
    • ‘It does this through convection, a process through which heat is transferred during the automatic circulation of fluid.’
    • ‘Good air circulation will encourage plant health in a confined area, and I would suggest adding a small fan to gently move the air, if needed.’
    • ‘We have little sense, however, of how these asylums fit into general systems of child circulation in specific historical contexts.’
    • ‘Under the newly funded project, scientists have designed a system for monitoring coastal circulation and movement of distinct water types.’
    • ‘A fluid flow model involving deep circulation of mineralizing fluids beneath the Carboniferous basins was suggested.’
    • ‘You end up with hard soil, with poor air circulation and poor water drainage that plants can't grow well in.’
    • ‘According to O'Donnell, the system works through the circulation of lukewarm water in a network of pipe loops embedded in the floor.’
    • ‘If any aspect of city life offers an opportunity for ‘reading the city’, it is the systems of movement and circulation which constitute urban transport.’
    • ‘Rapid data circulation through digital information systems means that distance appears to shrink and time seems to collapse.’
    • ‘To allow water circulation between the compartments, nine holes had been made in the partition.’
    • ‘What could have caused deep waters to form in the low latitudes and so markedly disrupt the usual system of deep water circulation?’
    • ‘The tides, weather systems and ocean circulation all influence the sea level over days to years.’
    • ‘Through this process, ocean circulation acts like a heat pump and determines our climate to a great extent.’
    flow, motion, movement, course, passage
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1The continuous motion by which the blood travels through all parts of the body under the action of the heart.
      • ‘To ensure proper circulation, drink adequate fluids, wear loose clothing, and, if possible, walk every half hour, or at least flex and extend your ankles.’
      • ‘Exercise helps to regulate blood pressure and improve circulation, reducing the risk of blood clots.’
      • ‘This bed may ease the aches of hip dysplasia and arthritis and improve blood circulation.’
      • ‘As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues.’
      • ‘Physically, it is thought to improve circulation and stimulate red blood cells.’
      • ‘Stretching is a good way to keep muscles limber and to increase blood circulation during travel.’
      • ‘Friction from rubbing salt over the body improves circulation, sloughs off dead cells, and softens the skin.’
      • ‘The blood circulation is a closed system in which the pressure varies constantly.’
      • ‘Cellulite develops when excess weight, poor circulation, or water retention weakens the connective tissue beneath your skin.’
      • ‘The body shuts down blood circulation to the feet, to prevent excessive loss of body heat.’
      • ‘Did you know poor circulation can cause water retention?’
      • ‘Fluid and proteins leak out of the blood vessels during blood circulation in the body.’
      • ‘Among the benefits of massage are relaxed muscles and nerves, increased circulation, lowered blood pressure and improved flexibility.’
      • ‘This improves circulation, relieves pain, and relaxes tension in the muscles.’
      • ‘Also, improving overall health through diet and exercise with also improve blood flow and circulation.’
      • ‘The process, said Sam, would rejuvenate my skin, and might help with water retention and circulation.’
      • ‘Unfortunately, none of these will fix or eliminate the damaged veins that hinder proper circulation of blood through the body.’
      • ‘Health experts are finding out that some of the chemicals in cocoa can have a positive effect on the heart and blood circulation.’
      • ‘People with serious burns need to be closely monitored and often require intravenous fluids to help their circulation.’
      • ‘The treatment helps soothe irritation and inflammation, stimulate blood circulation and strengthen the immune system and the lymphatic system.’
    2. 1.2The movement of sap through a plant.
  • 2The public availability or knowledge of something.

    ‘his music has achieved wide circulation’
    • ‘Print gave rise to the mass reproduction and circulation of information with wide reaching consequences in all fields.’
    • ‘I believe he has undermined the participatory principle of democracy in calling for the draft gender policy to be withdrawn from public circulation.’
    • ‘Whyte's book did not have a wide circulation among the public.’
    • ‘His theories had wide circulation in India and Russia, and he was welcomed personally by Nehru and other leaders in India.’
    • ‘The press were quick to pick it up, granting it wide circulation.’
    • ‘In the early coverage of the crisis, how many false rumors received wide circulation in the widespread press?’
    • ‘Media diversity is a good thing, only inasmuch as it provides an opportunity for the unrestricted circulation and clash of ideas.’
    • ‘Back in my days, when LSD was in wide circulation, its reliability was much greater.’
    • ‘Another story to achieve widespread circulation is the one of the motorist caught exceeding the limit by a speed camera in Cheshire.’
    • ‘The province is halting the production of any new books-on-tape for public circulation, while existing material is still available libraries.’
    • ‘Given its very wide circulation, this false statement may easily prejudice my trial.’
    • ‘Although Cane did not enjoy wide circulation, it influenced a whole generation of Harlem Renaissance writers.’
    • ‘Academic science depends on the public circulation of knowledge and research.’
    • ‘The school's director was extremely pleased with the wide circulation of the film and its international reception.’
    • ‘These radical shifts in policy and practice demand the widest circulation of the report.’
    • ‘This revised and enlarged edition was the form in which the book reached wider circulation and received much critical attention.’
    • ‘This footage is in wide circulation.’
    • ‘This will ensure that the best books will have the widest circulation.’
    • ‘Further speeches served to augment his stature and collections were published and enjoyed wide circulation.’
    • ‘There are more than 250 million guns in public circulation in the U.S.’
    dissemination, spreading, communication, transmission, making known, putting about
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1The movement, exchange, or availability of money in a country.
      ‘the new coins go into circulation today’
      • ‘That's what Las Vegas was made for, to get illegal money back into circulation again.’
      • ‘That's how they got the counterfeit money into circulation.’
      • ‘Since 2001, American coins have been withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘That's just a small amount of extra money that came into circulation.’
      • ‘During the first stage, the goal was simply to introduce the national currency and establish control over monetary circulation.’
      • ‘It puts new money into circulation which it hopes will flow to the bond market.’
      • ‘Many Iraqis have lost confidence in the only other bank note in wide circulation, the 10,000 dinar bill.’
      • ‘Convinced of the benefits to be gained from the increased circulation of money, he printed ever larger numbers of bank notes.’
      • ‘The gang plotted to put drugs money into normal circulation through betting.’
      • ‘This money would re-enter into circulation as financial institutions invest it in other capitalistic ventures.’
      • ‘During the changeover period there will be a significant increase in the movement of cash as the euro is distributed and Irish currency is withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘To provide a brief explanation of how the money system works: The bankers loan all the money into circulation, at interest.’
      • ‘The government today outlined how the euro would be brought into circulation if it won public support in a referendum.’
      • ‘The Treasury Department estimates that 60 percent of U.S. currency is held overseas, where Supernotes seem to be in wider circulation.’
      • ‘Euro notes and coins enter circulation in 12 European Union countries, in the biggest monetary changeover in history.’
      • ‘The bank, concerned about deflation, has pumped a lot of money into circulation in the past couple of years.’
      • ‘The king found that there would be no harm in having free circulation of money, and that this would in fact increase commerce and exchange.’
      • ‘Approximately 670,000 pounds sterling of base silver money was withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘The last gold coins intended for normal circulation in Thailand were struck in 1894.’
      • ‘He said the closure of the branches would lead to restructuring and improvement of the efficiency of money circulation.’
    2. 2.2[in singular]The number of copies sold of a newspaper or magazine.
      ‘the magazine had a large circulation’
      • ‘Is there any national publication of comparable circulation and prominence that has taken these positions?’
      • ‘A real problem has been The Sun-Herald, which has shed readers and circulation at an alarming rate.’
      • ‘With regard to newspaper circulations, you incorrectly note that the Newcastle Herald and the Gold Coast Bulletin topped the regional growth stakes.’
      • ‘But now the three newspapers with the highest circulations in the country are USA Today, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal, all publications that are distributed nationally.’
      • ‘Newspaper circulations everywhere have been falling for decades.’
      • ‘The Independent newspaper said yesterday the tabloid was exploiting the case to boost its circulation.’
      • ‘Financial woes and low circulation had plagued the paper for some time before the takeover.’
      • ‘Rates vary and are typically based on the publication's circulation and on what the competition charges.’
      • ‘Ullah was a paper published in a journal, which does not appear to have had a very wide circulation, called Preparative Biochemistry.’
      • ‘Magazine circulations are either static, growing for some newer titles, or slowly sliding.’
      • ‘Does your publication only have 10,000 circulation?’
      • ‘Stars on Sunday has set itself extremely ambitious targets for circulation and advertising revenue.’
      • ‘The United States Postal Service requires all publications to publish a statement of ownership, management and circulation.’
      • ‘The Arizona Republic and the East Valley Tribune were selected due to their wide circulation in the Phoenix Metro-East Valley area.’
      • ‘Its flagship, The Daily Mirror, achieved a world record circulation of more than five million in the mid-1960s.’
      • ‘Even with reduced readership and circulation, they still have the largest number of paying customers, who are much coveted by advertisers.’
      • ‘Car, fashion, and other consumer product magazines in China are achieving high circulation.’
      • ‘I think the presenter was reading from one of the national tabloids, which, as we've come to expect, print anything that might hike up their circulation.’
      • ‘Zimpapers has been losing money as circulation figures decline due to its pro-government stance.’
      • ‘The magazine, which is distributed free of charge, increased its circulation to 313,923.’

Origin

Late Middle English (denoting continuous distillation of a liquid): from Latin circulatio(n-), from the verb circulare (see circulate).

Pronunciation:

circulation

/ˌsərkyəˈlāSH(ə)n/