Definition of circulation in English:

circulation

(also cir., circ.)

noun

  • 1Movement to and fro or around something, especially that of fluid in a closed system.

    ‘an extra pump for good water circulation’
    • ‘Through this process, ocean circulation acts like a heat pump and determines our climate to a great extent.’
    • ‘One may reasonably assume that fluid circulation inside unconsolidated sediments must play an active role in settling sedimentary structures.’
    • ‘Good air circulation will encourage plant health in a confined area, and I would suggest adding a small fan to gently move the air, if needed.’
    • ‘In convection, heat is transferred through air or fluid circulation.’
    • ‘The tides, weather systems and ocean circulation all influence the sea level over days to years.’
    • ‘What could have caused deep waters to form in the low latitudes and so markedly disrupt the usual system of deep water circulation?’
    • ‘Drain holes prevent overwatering and help provide air circulation necessary for healthy plant growth.’
    • ‘According to O'Donnell, the system works through the circulation of lukewarm water in a network of pipe loops embedded in the floor.’
    • ‘Air circulation and water will keep the microorganisms healthy and working.’
    • ‘To allow water circulation between the compartments, nine holes had been made in the partition.’
    • ‘Rapid data circulation through digital information systems means that distance appears to shrink and time seems to collapse.’
    • ‘A fluid flow model involving deep circulation of mineralizing fluids beneath the Carboniferous basins was suggested.’
    • ‘You end up with hard soil, with poor air circulation and poor water drainage that plants can't grow well in.’
    • ‘The circulation of fluids that forms this new class of hydrothermal vents is driven by heat generated when seawater reacts with mantle rocks, not by volcanic heat.’
    • ‘Leave your pet at home with plenty of water and air circulation during the peak summer season.’
    • ‘If any aspect of city life offers an opportunity for ‘reading the city’, it is the systems of movement and circulation which constitute urban transport.’
    • ‘We have little sense, however, of how these asylums fit into general systems of child circulation in specific historical contexts.’
    • ‘Avoid crowding your planted pots close together, as your plants need good air circulation and growing room.’
    • ‘Under the newly funded project, scientists have designed a system for monitoring coastal circulation and movement of distinct water types.’
    • ‘It does this through convection, a process through which heat is transferred during the automatic circulation of fluid.’
    flow, motion, movement, course, passage
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 The continuous motion by which the blood travels through all parts of the body under the action of the heart.
      • ‘Stretching is a good way to keep muscles limber and to increase blood circulation during travel.’
      • ‘Physically, it is thought to improve circulation and stimulate red blood cells.’
      • ‘Cellulite develops when excess weight, poor circulation, or water retention weakens the connective tissue beneath your skin.’
      • ‘This bed may ease the aches of hip dysplasia and arthritis and improve blood circulation.’
      • ‘Unfortunately, none of these will fix or eliminate the damaged veins that hinder proper circulation of blood through the body.’
      • ‘Health experts are finding out that some of the chemicals in cocoa can have a positive effect on the heart and blood circulation.’
      • ‘The body shuts down blood circulation to the feet, to prevent excessive loss of body heat.’
      • ‘Fluid and proteins leak out of the blood vessels during blood circulation in the body.’
      • ‘Exercise helps to regulate blood pressure and improve circulation, reducing the risk of blood clots.’
      • ‘The treatment helps soothe irritation and inflammation, stimulate blood circulation and strengthen the immune system and the lymphatic system.’
      • ‘As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues.’
      • ‘The blood circulation is a closed system in which the pressure varies constantly.’
      • ‘Did you know poor circulation can cause water retention?’
      • ‘Also, improving overall health through diet and exercise with also improve blood flow and circulation.’
      • ‘To ensure proper circulation, drink adequate fluids, wear loose clothing, and, if possible, walk every half hour, or at least flex and extend your ankles.’
      • ‘People with serious burns need to be closely monitored and often require intravenous fluids to help their circulation.’
      • ‘This improves circulation, relieves pain, and relaxes tension in the muscles.’
      • ‘Friction from rubbing salt over the body improves circulation, sloughs off dead cells, and softens the skin.’
      • ‘The process, said Sam, would rejuvenate my skin, and might help with water retention and circulation.’
      • ‘Among the benefits of massage are relaxed muscles and nerves, increased circulation, lowered blood pressure and improved flexibility.’
    2. 1.2 The movement of sap through a plant.
  • 2The public availability or knowledge of something.

    ‘his music has achieved wide circulation’
    • ‘This footage is in wide circulation.’
    • ‘This revised and enlarged edition was the form in which the book reached wider circulation and received much critical attention.’
    • ‘The press were quick to pick it up, granting it wide circulation.’
    • ‘Media diversity is a good thing, only inasmuch as it provides an opportunity for the unrestricted circulation and clash of ideas.’
    • ‘Academic science depends on the public circulation of knowledge and research.’
    • ‘His theories had wide circulation in India and Russia, and he was welcomed personally by Nehru and other leaders in India.’
    • ‘The province is halting the production of any new books-on-tape for public circulation, while existing material is still available libraries.’
    • ‘I believe he has undermined the participatory principle of democracy in calling for the draft gender policy to be withdrawn from public circulation.’
    • ‘Although Cane did not enjoy wide circulation, it influenced a whole generation of Harlem Renaissance writers.’
    • ‘Given its very wide circulation, this false statement may easily prejudice my trial.’
    • ‘Print gave rise to the mass reproduction and circulation of information with wide reaching consequences in all fields.’
    • ‘Another story to achieve widespread circulation is the one of the motorist caught exceeding the limit by a speed camera in Cheshire.’
    • ‘In the early coverage of the crisis, how many false rumors received wide circulation in the widespread press?’
    • ‘Back in my days, when LSD was in wide circulation, its reliability was much greater.’
    • ‘Whyte's book did not have a wide circulation among the public.’
    • ‘The school's director was extremely pleased with the wide circulation of the film and its international reception.’
    • ‘This will ensure that the best books will have the widest circulation.’
    • ‘These radical shifts in policy and practice demand the widest circulation of the report.’
    • ‘There are more than 250 million guns in public circulation in the U.S.’
    • ‘Further speeches served to augment his stature and collections were published and enjoyed wide circulation.’
    dissemination, spreading, communication, transmission, making known, putting about
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1 The movement, exchange, or availability of money in a country.
      ‘the new coins go into circulation today’
      • ‘During the changeover period there will be a significant increase in the movement of cash as the euro is distributed and Irish currency is withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘That's just a small amount of extra money that came into circulation.’
      • ‘Many Iraqis have lost confidence in the only other bank note in wide circulation, the 10,000 dinar bill.’
      • ‘During the first stage, the goal was simply to introduce the national currency and establish control over monetary circulation.’
      • ‘It puts new money into circulation which it hopes will flow to the bond market.’
      • ‘That's how they got the counterfeit money into circulation.’
      • ‘The Treasury Department estimates that 60 percent of U.S. currency is held overseas, where Supernotes seem to be in wider circulation.’
      • ‘Since 2001, American coins have been withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘The king found that there would be no harm in having free circulation of money, and that this would in fact increase commerce and exchange.’
      • ‘He said the closure of the branches would lead to restructuring and improvement of the efficiency of money circulation.’
      • ‘The bank, concerned about deflation, has pumped a lot of money into circulation in the past couple of years.’
      • ‘To provide a brief explanation of how the money system works: The bankers loan all the money into circulation, at interest.’
      • ‘That's what Las Vegas was made for, to get illegal money back into circulation again.’
      • ‘Approximately 670,000 pounds sterling of base silver money was withdrawn from circulation.’
      • ‘This money would re-enter into circulation as financial institutions invest it in other capitalistic ventures.’
      • ‘The government today outlined how the euro would be brought into circulation if it won public support in a referendum.’
      • ‘The gang plotted to put drugs money into normal circulation through betting.’
      • ‘The last gold coins intended for normal circulation in Thailand were struck in 1894.’
      • ‘Euro notes and coins enter circulation in 12 European Union countries, in the biggest monetary changeover in history.’
      • ‘Convinced of the benefits to be gained from the increased circulation of money, he printed ever larger numbers of bank notes.’
    2. 2.2in singular The number of copies sold of a newspaper or magazine.
      ‘the magazine had a large circulation’
      • ‘The United States Postal Service requires all publications to publish a statement of ownership, management and circulation.’
      • ‘The Arizona Republic and the East Valley Tribune were selected due to their wide circulation in the Phoenix Metro-East Valley area.’
      • ‘Does your publication only have 10,000 circulation?’
      • ‘The magazine, which is distributed free of charge, increased its circulation to 313,923.’
      • ‘But now the three newspapers with the highest circulations in the country are USA Today, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal, all publications that are distributed nationally.’
      • ‘Is there any national publication of comparable circulation and prominence that has taken these positions?’
      • ‘Zimpapers has been losing money as circulation figures decline due to its pro-government stance.’
      • ‘Even with reduced readership and circulation, they still have the largest number of paying customers, who are much coveted by advertisers.’
      • ‘Rates vary and are typically based on the publication's circulation and on what the competition charges.’
      • ‘Ullah was a paper published in a journal, which does not appear to have had a very wide circulation, called Preparative Biochemistry.’
      • ‘Financial woes and low circulation had plagued the paper for some time before the takeover.’
      • ‘Magazine circulations are either static, growing for some newer titles, or slowly sliding.’
      • ‘With regard to newspaper circulations, you incorrectly note that the Newcastle Herald and the Gold Coast Bulletin topped the regional growth stakes.’
      • ‘Car, fashion, and other consumer product magazines in China are achieving high circulation.’
      • ‘Its flagship, The Daily Mirror, achieved a world record circulation of more than five million in the mid-1960s.’
      • ‘I think the presenter was reading from one of the national tabloids, which, as we've come to expect, print anything that might hike up their circulation.’
      • ‘Stars on Sunday has set itself extremely ambitious targets for circulation and advertising revenue.’
      • ‘A real problem has been The Sun-Herald, which has shed readers and circulation at an alarming rate.’
      • ‘Newspaper circulations everywhere have been falling for decades.’
      • ‘The Independent newspaper said yesterday the tabloid was exploiting the case to boost its circulation.’
      distribution, readership
      View synonyms

Phrases

  • in (or out of) circulation

    • 1Available (or unavailable) to the public; in (or not in) general use.

      ‘there is a huge volume of video material in circulation’
      • ‘The scheme has taken more money out of circulation than I expected.’
      • ‘Up to the 16th century, the amount of cash in circulation was more or less determined by the amount of gold discovered.’
      • ‘There are at any moment in Silicon Valley about 10,000 business plans in circulation, looking for money.’
      • ‘Sponsorship cards were also in circulation on the day and still available for anyone who wishes to donate.’
      • ‘In normal circumstances, the amount of money in circulation should have gone up by about £400m since this time last year.’
      • ‘At present, there are over 190 copies of the video in circulation.’
      • ‘The memory cell remains in circulation, ready to respond to reintroduction of the antigen.’
      • ‘The draft document should be in circulation by December, with the final document ready to be presented to government by May next year.’
      • ‘Despite its reputation as a cult classic, Blue Velvet has nevertheless been out of circulation for years.’
      • ‘Tickets are now in circulation and are available from any committee member.’
      around, about, in existence, current, going on, prevailing, prevalent, widespread, pervasive, endemic, happening, in the air, abroad
      View synonyms
      1. 1.1Used of a person who is seen (or not seen) in public.
        ‘Anne had made a good recovery and was back in circulation’
        • ‘The councillor said the drop in crime figures was down to the fact that some people had been taken out of circulation for the past six months.’
        • ‘My officers are putting a major effort into driving down crime by taking large numbers of criminals out of circulation.’
        • ‘They are dangerous, they are callous and they need taking out of circulation as quickly as possible.’
        • ‘With his newly-found free time, Rogers took stock of himself - 58, healthy, educated - and realized he wasn't ready to be taken out of circulation.’
        • ‘The convicted smuggler reveals this was one of a number of ‘sting’ operations arranged with the authorities, some of which conveniently took rival gangsters out of circulation.’
        • ‘Habitual teenage criminals are sent straight back home to continue terrorising their districts rather than being taken out of circulation.’

Origin

Late Middle English (denoting continuous distillation of a liquid): from Latin circulatio(n-), from the verb circulare (see circulate).

Pronunciation

circulation

/ˌsərkjəˈleɪʃ(ə)n//ˌsərkyəˈlāSH(ə)n/