The electric charge per unit area of a surface, or per unit volume of a field or body.
- ‘The binding or unbinding of a single ion will drastically affect the calculated surface charge density.’
- ‘The lateral segregation of charged membrane components, leading to local changes in surface charge density, depends linearly on electric field.’
- ‘The macroscopic charge density inside a conductor is zero.’
- ‘Consequently, by changing the potential applied to the electrode, the charge density on the gold surface and hence the field acting on the membrane can be used as a variable in our experiments.’
- ‘Surface charge density determines the efficiency of cationic gemini surfactant based lipofection.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.