Definition of challenge in English:

challenge

noun

  • 1A call to take part in a contest or competition, especially a duel.

    ‘he accepted the challenge’
    • ‘This time, they had decided, they would accept the challenge.’
    • ‘The dream of gold or silver became a reality when they took up the challenge of a Mayo team with a strong tradition in the sport.’
    • ‘The Australian champion throws off the challenge of Pirrie, the Canadian youth, and just wins a great race.’
    • ‘Ian Fitzgerald returned to competitive action in a challenge against Roscommon last Sunday.’
    • ‘And, those in the treasury benches, far from going on the defensive, took up the challenge.’
    • ‘John beat challenges from 399 other contestants to take the title by knocking seven Yorkshire puddings from their perch using a six-ounce black pudding.’
    • ‘Yet they gamely rose to the challenge, fighting the Tabs to the bitter end.’
    • ‘The Edinburgh side were quick to rise to the challenge and with their superior forward play they denied the Border men any more points in the first half.’
    • ‘Needless to say the Sri Lanka Air Force Cycling Club rode to easy victory in more than 20 races with rarely a challenge.’
    • ‘Rosa Parks challenged us to fight for our soul, and we accepted the challenge.’
    • ‘She has to judge the strength of the challenge from the other crews and dictate the response of her own crew.’
    • ‘But after three years of frantic knitting, they decided to end the challenge, despite reaching halfway.’
    • ‘The 1993 election saw Prime Minister Keating fight a challenge from the new Liberal Leader Dr John Hewson.’
    • ‘Let us assume for a second that I have decided to take the challenge.’
    • ‘A diversity of masculine subjectivities is mobilized around and through Spike as he comes to terms with challenges to his power.’
    • ‘The obsession of kite flying can also be seen in competitive kite challenges.’
    • ‘A promising start for Ilkley in a season that will contain some very stern challenges and some easier contests.’
    • ‘On this occasion, he mistakenly believed that they would not meet his challenge by fighting.’
    • ‘Because of this idea of a competitive country, open to the biggest international challenges, I decided to be associated with the creation of A1 Team Portugal.’
    • ‘I can still see that mighty frame of his winning crucial challenges in vital championship games.’
    dare, provocation
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 A task or situation that tests someone's abilities.
      ‘the ridge is a challenge for experienced climbers’
      • ‘Traditional concepts of security were woefully inadequate to meet the new challenges faced by humankind.’
      • ‘The wannabes leave their lives behind for two months and undergo tests, missions and challenges that are based on real spy training programmes.’
      • ‘Good question - though he acknowledges that a seaside property of this one's age offers plenty of challenges in terms of repairs and renovation.’
      • ‘There are only three people in the game at this point who are competitive at the challenges.’
      • ‘The smallest gardens can present the biggest design challenges, but a professional designer can work picture-perfect magic.’
      • ‘Hungry for a new challenge, he fought his way through ‘God Save the Queen’.’
      • ‘My uncle took up the challenge and bolted out to the rescue.’
      • ‘Many brave souls took up the challenge, but only two could succeed.’
      • ‘I decided to take a challenge and registered myself for a spring session offering of introductory Latin.’
      • ‘Julie gave a presentation on blogging as a social tool and the challenges in deciding what to blog, what to keep private, and what your online self really is.’
      • ‘Pat said he coped with illness by treating it as a challenge, fighting for the one life he has and making the most of it.’
      • ‘It was his brother, Matthew, an architect, who took up the challenge of linking the tiny stone school buildings and turning them into a home.’
      • ‘He ran the Great North Run last year and took up the challenge of the marathon.’
      • ‘Meeting the pressing security challenges of the 21st century will require new ideas, initiatives, and energy.’
      • ‘One of today's greatest challenges for young people working for change is to fight complacency.’
      • ‘The novice traveler often must undergo tests or challenges, but the experienced holy person is familiar with the road and the terrain and encounters no such problems.’
      • ‘One of peace activists' biggest challenges now may be deciding whether broadening their scope will dilute their public profile.’
      • ‘The opthalmologist Robert D' Amato took up the challenge of finding such a drug in the early 1990s.’
      • ‘The main challenges facing agencies are a shortage of trucks and the poor condition of some roads.’
      • ‘Every day, the dozy dozen face a series of challenges and tasks designed to test the sleep-deprived.’
      problem, difficult task, test, trial
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 An attempt to win a contest or championship in a sport.
      ‘a world title challenge’
      • ‘Chelsea seemed a solid defensive unit who might grind their way towards a Championship challenge.’
      • ‘Hatton stresses that he is not looking beyond Rios, who has never been stopped and has twice lost in challenges for world lightweight titles.’
      • ‘Heworth, who were champions in 1998, may mount a realistic challenge in a championship race.’
      • ‘Gomersal took advantage of Idle's week off to continue their challenge for the secondary title.’
      • ‘Manchester United have won through November in a manner that should presage a championship challenge.’
      • ‘He is looking to steer his new found sensation into the international fold and a possible challenge for a world title next year.’
      • ‘Trojans turned in a competent performance to brush aside a youthful Northallerton side and keep their title challenge on course.’
      • ‘Bellamy's pace and skill refreshed a somewhat ageing Newcastle side - their title challenge faltered when he was injured.’
      • ‘We need teams like Leeds to make a challenge for the premiership title so we don't see the old same teams winning it year after year’
      • ‘They do not have the depth in squad required to proceed in Europe, and at the same time mount anything like a serious challenge on the domestic title at home.’
      • ‘Backup Gus's poor performance showed he wasn't up to the playoff challenge.’
      • ‘Would Truman State withstand a stiff challenge from rival Drury to win a fifth consecutive team title?’
      • ‘Last season, Leeds made a realistic challenge for the premiership title, this season they are even better!’
      • ‘He gave him the stiffest challenge for the title, and he was in fact the only player to remain uneaten till the end.’
      • ‘This is after all the biggest club in the Second City and yet it's 12 years since the team managed a decent challenge for the title.’
      • ‘They'll come second, but should really be staking a claim for a championship challenge.’
      • ‘Although he continued to box, he was unsuccessful in subsequent world title challenges, including one against Evander Holyfield in 1992.’
      • ‘Will fixture congestion caused by The Champions League weaken their league challenge?’
      • ‘It was a nice win and one that we needed if we are to mount a challenge for the play-offs.’
      • ‘Unfortunately, Montoya learnt that too late to save his championship challenge for 2003.’
  • 2An objection or query as to the truth of something, often with an implicit demand for proof.

    ‘a challenge to the legality of the order’
    • ‘There is no serious challenge to the material portions of Larry's evidence.’
    • ‘Nevertheless, a challenge to the validity of the derogation would certainly be possible.’
    • ‘The manner of resolution of it is one that has been cut off at the pass, as it were, because of the challenge to jurisdiction.’
    • ‘It does put us in a difficult position if in a sense the submissions are going to a de facto challenge to the fiat.’
    • ‘There has never been any challenge to the correctness of the directions in relation to murder, either in this Court or below.’
    • ‘There has been no challenge to the filing of the defence, your Honour.’
    • ‘Last week the Victorian Supreme Court rejected a challenge to State legislation known as the Farm Dams Act.’
    • ‘It does so for the obvious reason that if there is to be a challenge to the jurisdiction it should be made without delay and before substantial costs are incurred.’
    • ‘Before the court now is the claimant's challenge to both limbs of that decision.’
    • ‘Those issues do arise in Courts of Criminal Appeal, of course, in challenge to the conviction.’
    • ‘If so, an alliance of parliamentary opponents will mount a court challenge on grounds of human rights.’
    • ‘Has there ever been a head-on challenge to the constitutional validity of courts martial in Australia?’
    • ‘What is the process for any curial challenge to a ruling not to exercise that exculpatory power?’
    • ‘The prospect of a legal challenge to the Bluestone planning decision is proving a barrier in the minds of prospective job applicants.’
    • ‘There has been no challenge to her credibility as a witness, or to her professional competence.’
    • ‘If the decision is quashed and does not exist, there is no challenge to an existing decision.’
    • ‘There is no challenge to this as an accurate record of the way in which the plaintiff mounted the claim for damages.’
    • ‘Last September Mr Justice Pitchford rejected their judicial review challenge to the Home Office's stance.’
    • ‘There is no challenge to the findings of the fact and the appropriate findings are contained in the relevant decision.’
    • ‘At trial there was no challenge to the dating of any of the documents.’
    • ‘There was no challenge to that finding in the Full Federal Court.’
    • ‘The Supreme Court rejected a challenge to one of those statutes.’
    • ‘Crane's challenge to the Kansas statute, however, rests on a flawed assumption about the law.’
    • ‘It is the statute which produces the results complained of and there is no challenge to the statute itself.’
    • ‘I was thinking by way of challenge to the witnesses who were involved in the theft of the vehicle.’
    • ‘I note, as well, there was no challenge to the disbursements which, in my view, were reasonable.’
    • ‘In paragraph 3 the Tribunal found the facts and there is no challenge to the facts as set out in that paragraph.’
    • ‘Do I correctly understand that there is no challenge to the validity of the Sex Discrimination Act?’
    • ‘Any challenge to the jurisdiction should be pursued before the Commercial Court judge.’
    • ‘As Kerry preens as a hero, Swift Boat Veterans for Truth's challenge to his medals is not being heard.’
    • ‘In order to meet some aspects of the challenge to validity the claimants apply to amend the patent in suit to limit the size of the class of compounds claimed.’
    • ‘Was there any challenge to the proposition that her fingerprints were on that spray?’
    • ‘The experience and knowledge generated proved significant in the longer term for mounting legal challenges to apartheid legislation.’
    • ‘So for those reasons, in our submission, no challenge to our entitlement to compensation has force.’
    • ‘There is no challenge to that conclusion in the respondent's notice.’
    • ‘But the new human rights era in English law also poses a more fundamental challenge to basic doctrines of tort law and procedure.’
    • ‘There was no challenge to Mr Marsh's account of that lunch.’
    • ‘Another matter of challenge to his Honour's sentence is the fixing of the non-parole period.’
    • ‘Preliminary rulings are important as a method of indirect challenge to the legality of Community action.’
    • ‘But it cannot be elevated into a disguised challenge to the validity of the enforcement notice itself.’
    confrontation with, dispute with, stand against, test of, opposition, disagreement with
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1 A sentry's call for a password or other proof of identity.
      • ‘The challenge must be made at a distance sufficient to prevent your being rushed by the person being challenged.’
      • ‘Partisan poll workers have been accused of intimidating voters with photographs, heckling, and by challenges to their identity and qualifications.’
      • ‘Immediately the sentry shouted a challenge to the gunman who responded by raising his weapon to fire at the sentry.’
      • ‘In order to proceed further, you must answer the sentry's challenge by entering the countersign’
    2. 2.2Law An objection regarding the eligibility or suitability of a jury member.
      • ‘Most of the hearing time was actually occupied by challenges to the jury, as it were, the panel of military officers that are going to hear the case.’
      • ‘In mounting such a challenge, an attorney argues that based on a person's answers to the lawyer's or the judge's questions, that person has proved himself incapable of carrying out his responsibilities as a juror.’
      • ‘Either party may challenge any juror either for cause or peremptorily and each party shall have three peremptory challenges.’
      • ‘The coroner in charge of the inquest is facing a legal challenge to his decision to appoint 12 royal courtiers to the jury’
      • ‘Members of a jury should be selected at random from the panel, subject to any rule of law as to right of challenge by the defence’
  • 3Medicine
    Exposure of the immune system to pathogenic organisms or antigens.

    ‘recently vaccinated calves should be protected from challenge’
    • ‘Both mediators were elevated in patients with asthma after allergen challenge.’
    • ‘Acute antigen challenge of the airways can lead to rapid edema and appearance of plasma proteins in the airways.’
    • ‘Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can be studied in the laboratory by allergen inhalation challenge.’
    • ‘All of them have been reported to induce antibodies in mice and provide full or partial protection from live virus challenge.’
    • ‘The effect of M. habana vaccination on protection against challenge with M. tuberculosis was evaluated.’

verb

[WITH OBJECT]
  • 1Invite (someone) to engage in a contest.

    ‘he challenged one of my men to a duel’
    • ‘Playboy model Kiana Tom challenged him to a front double-biceps contest - Hayden prevailed.’
    • ‘He was kissing her bottom lip and suddenly his tongue was slowly touching hers, daring her, challenging her to duel with him.’
    • ‘If anyone ever challenges you to an egg eating contest, don't back down.’
    • ‘Colton still stood there holding the sword as if daring any thief to challenge him.’
    • ‘Laodamas encourages him to join the contest and Odysseus asks them why they want to challenge him.’
    • ‘Before she would agree to marry her suitor, she challenged him to several contests and always won.’
    • ‘With a sneer she finished and straightened up, adopting an air that dared me to challenge her.’
    • ‘During the shooting sessions on their Saturday practice, another Raptor teammate challenged him to a three-point shooting contest.’
    • ‘Gollum challenges him to a riddle contest, and Bilbo wins.’
    • ‘One thing leads to another and the commanding general challenges the soldier to a push-up contest.’
    • ‘Onion picklers are being challenged to enter their delicacies in a competition run by the Five Bells pub, in Wood Street.’
    • ‘Convention, as expected, provided just one contest with Clashmore's Timmy O'Keeffe challenging outgoing secretary Seamas Grant.’
    • ‘I want to go around the country challenging people to eating contests!’
    • ‘Last week a man saw me lifting by myself and challenged me to a contest.’
    • ‘The next day, Sean was challenged to a duel.’
    • ‘That'll teach him to challenge me to a food eating contest again.’
    • ‘After learning a few letters, he then challenges the white boys to a writing contest.’
    • ‘The contest challenged children to describe what they do before bed each night to help them get a good night's sleep - and why.’
    • ‘Galois was challenged to a duel on 29th May 1832.’
    • ‘And then he is challenged to a duel by the local thug.’
    dare, summon, invite, bid, throw down the gauntlet to, defy someone to do something
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 Enter into competition with or opposition against.
      ‘incumbent Democrats are being challenged in the 29th district’
      • ‘We glared at each other for a few more seconds, his silver eyes narrowed slightly, daring me to challenge him.’
      • ‘Mr Hayes has challenged the introduction of competition at the expense of the British Post Office.’
      • ‘No one in the audience bothered, or dared, to challenge him.’
      • ‘Deadly with a rifle and lightening fast on the draw with a pistol, few dared challenge him.’
      • ‘The steely gaze is now fixed on that medal and the message is clear: challenge him if you dare.’
      • ‘He challenged calls from the opposition parties for a commission of inquiry to be instituted to probe his wife's appointment.’
      • ‘Marka's violet eyes glared at him, Simian's light brown ones flashed at her, daring her to challenge him again.’
      • ‘Luna could feel a presence around Tiamat that dared people to challenge her.’
      • ‘In 1902, Saint-Pierre was also the bastion of a white supremacy whose power was being challenged by a populist opposition.’
      • ‘As a Christian from an Asian background I challenge this position.’
      • ‘Flames licked out, consuming the spiritualists who dared to challenge God.’
      • ‘Evelyn answered, crossing her arms across her chest, as if daring her mother to challenge her.’
      • ‘He took a step towards me, brown eyes daring me to challenge him.’
      • ‘That move is being challenged by the Federal Opposition.’
      • ‘He challenged the opposition, which failed to seize the opportunity that had been so long in coming.’
      • ‘The Competition Authority does not have the power to challenge state-restricted competition.’
      • ‘As a friend, she asks and presses him to answer the hard questions, directly engaging with one whose thoughts she finds interesting, challenging him to clarify his position.’
      • ‘Kids will be kids, and kids, as we know, constantly challenge the status quo.’
      • ‘So, on the question of a separate issue, I do say there was a separate issue here, the implications of the challenge to the planning system as a whole.’
      • ‘The group respected him because he was the leader, and none would ever dare to challenge him.’
      contend, vie, fight, battle, clash, tussle, grapple, wrestle, wrangle, jockey, wage war, cross swords, lock horns, go head to head
      rival, keep up with, keep pace with, compare with, be the equal of, match up to, match, be on a par with, be in the same class as, be in the same league as, come near to, come close to, touch, approach, approximate, emulate
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 Make a rival claim to or threaten someone's hold on (a position)
      ‘they were challenging his leadership’
      • ‘Still, it seems that both teams have the capacity to challenge for honours this season.’
      • ‘He is now nicely poised to challenge for the top spot.’
      • ‘Brighton boss Micky Adams believes a resurgent York City will be challenging for promotion next season.’
      • ‘Today, as a fellow countryman challenges for the championship lead, he worries that the sport's decision to re-embrace computer aids could put drivers at risk in Monaco.’
      • ‘The impressive and young Nurney team have not lost sight of the fact that they are one win away from getting themselves into a promotion challenging position.’
      • ‘Pat's are now in a strong position to challenge for league honours.’
      • ‘Well, no one was challenging my position so I would keep it until someone was ready to take my place.’
      • ‘The latest find suggest the huge pythons might even challenge alligators' leading position in the food chain.’
      • ‘A pioneer in liquid crystal displays, Sharp has seen its once-dominant position challenged by Taiwanese and Korean rivals.’
      • ‘Since the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 Britain's Royal Navy had been the dominant fighting fleet in the world; now Germany was challenging this position.’
      • ‘Right now, are Newcastle any nearer to challenging for the title than Liverpool?’
      • ‘"It will be a change challenging for the title rather than battling relegation".’
      • ‘On top of that Coulthard started winning races from the front and challenging Hakkinen's position within the team.’
      • ‘The Bulls were expected to challenge for a playoff spot but instead got blasted early this season.’
      • ‘They are challenging for promotion and have a big, experienced squad.’
      • ‘If all the pieces mesh nicely, they could challenge for the East title.’
      • ‘Fan is so far the only candidate and no one has yet emerged from the democratic camp to challenge the position she has held for the past seven years.’
      • ‘By the time he left Cowdenbeath, the club were challenging for promotion.’
      • ‘Once that title was won, no Bonaparte in Pakistan would dare to challenge him for the leadership mantle.’
      • ‘Kelly would be able to challenge for a starting spot at a position of need.’
    3. 1.3with object and infinitive Invite (someone) to do something that one thinks will be difficult or impossible; dare.
      ‘I challenged them to make up their own minds’
      • ‘Some might say he was challenging me to work harder for my own good.’
      • ‘Holding a contest challenging clients to maintain their weight during the holidays can be extremely effective.’
      • ‘I had randomly approached him and had a little conversation with him due to a dare Riley had challenged me to.’
      • ‘Eckhart really invites us and challenges us to keep learning, perhaps with him, or without him, he probably wouldn't worry if it was without him.’
      • ‘Later when a diplomatic stewardess refused him alcohol he got really indignant and challenged her to dare insinuate that he was over the limit.’
      • ‘And he challenged the opposition to compile a schedule of the expenditure they would propose and of the reductions they oppose.’
      • ‘When BBC Radio Gloucestershire first invited him onto the airwaves they challenged him to teach a novice how to use a computer - live on air and all within three hours!’
      • ‘Its hardships and difficulties challenge us to look into our soul so that we can ask how deeply we are willing to trust God.’
      • ‘A total of 226 teams entered the competition, which challenged them to investigate all aspects of the horticultural industry.’
      • ‘They invite you and challenge you to live up to your own thoughts and insights.’
      • ‘I challenge the Opposition to give us one policy that tells New Zealanders it would change a single thing.’
      • ‘We are challenged with a most difficult task, which is to uphold the law,’ he said.’
      • ‘In the meantime, somebody please convince Better Homes and Gardens Magazine to hold a contest challenging people to build the best robot butler.’
      • ‘The boy who had challenged him to the dare, Narayan, came forward and offered him a bowl of rice wine. Dhan touched the chalice to his lips, and handed it back to Narayan.’
      • ‘The defacement competition challenges crackers to deface as many as 6,000 sites in the shortest time possible to win the contest.’
      • ‘He challenges us to think hard about what is most ancient and contemporary about being Christian.’
      • ‘He had challenged himself to entering the Beton Tower and exploring it alone.’
      • ‘You hear stories that challenge you to think harder about who you are.’
      • ‘Two friends challenged a third to enter the graveyard in the middle of the night and to hammer a large nail into a well known grave.’
      • ‘‘The difficult thing is challenging yourself to do something that you haven't done before,’ he says.’
    4. 1.4 Test the abilities of.
      ‘he needed something both to challenge his skills and to regain his crown as the king of the thriller’
      • ‘The facts are that students become disengaged and are not challenged by the curriculum.’
      • ‘To challenge yourself, do the balance poses on a plush carpet or on a wobble board.’
      • ‘In these cases pupils are constantly challenged by the course and make good progress.’
      • ‘Communication between defenders becomes more difficult and the concentration level of the defender is challenged.’
      • ‘There are so many areas where you can challenge yourself and test your own limits.’
      • ‘During the trading year, random events could spring up to challenge your ability to manage the business through such unforeseen situations.’
      • ‘No strategy he could come up with would challenge him enough to spark interest.’
      • ‘The rare breeds hatchery business has challenged them, Drowns says.’
      • ‘My directorial task is to challenge my company and myself.’
      • ‘The people I see grow old with grace and inspiration are the people who keep challenging themselves.’
      test, tax, try
      View synonyms
  • 2Dispute the truth or validity of.

    ‘employees challenged the company's requirement’
    • ‘They challenge existing theories and accepted musical norms, always striving to keep a step ahead.’
    • ‘With his teaching, Jesus challenges this position.’
    • ‘Not until Malthus and Ricardo were Smith's optimistic assumptions seriously challenged.’
    • ‘He challenged existing theoretical propositions which he believed were only rationalization of current practices.’
    • ‘Fast-paced, relevant and worldly, it directly challenges Western notions about the universalizing effects of literature.’
    • ‘For example, moving services from secondary to primary care challenges many deeply held assumptions about the role of specialists.’
    • ‘The debate is strikingly one-sided; few civilian or military leaders have publicly challenged the fundamental assumptions of the critics.’
    • ‘But his interpretation of the latest figures as solely attributable to his policies was challenged by the opposition and by the Irish Refugee Council.’
    • ‘Both lawsuits challenge the constitutionality of holding immigration hearings in secrecy.’
    • ‘In 1989 Maitland challenged the settlement, claiming that only a small salary disparity existed between men and women professors.’
    • ‘Many others before you have made the decision to openly challenge the legitimacy of my marriage.’
    • ‘Morrison completes her trilogy by confronting contemporary race and gender representations and challenging declarations of truth and law.’
    • ‘Now no member state would openly challenge the legitimacy of the institution's role.’
    • ‘A similar care order secured on the child of another couple has been successfully challenged in the courts.’
    • ‘He said that either a Newton Hearing, in which the disputed evidence is challenged, or an agreed basis of plea needed to take place before he could proceed with the case.’
    • ‘By saying she doesn't remember she is tacitly accepting the truth by not challenging it.’
    • ‘One part is to challenge directly the notion that there is an obligation to carry out a war against disease.’
    • ‘Davis supporters had filed a lawsuit challenging the validity of some of the recall signatures.’
    • ‘At least one murder conviction is to be challenged on the basis of "flawed" fingerprint evidence.’
    • ‘Anyway, it appears California's speed camera rules have been successfully challenged in court.’
    question, disagree with, object to, take exception to, confront, dispute, take issue with, protest against, call into question
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1Law Object to (a jury member)
      • ‘Since one is not allowed to select jurors, but only to challenge (deselect) them, traditional approaches to jury selection have focused on identification and challenge of undesirable jurors’
      • ‘Defence Counsel may challenge two jury candidates and jurors will be asked if they have any connection with case or defendant.’
      • ‘The parties to any jury trial may inspect a copy of the panel from which the jury in their trial will be chosen, in order to decide whether any should be challenged’
    2. 2.2 (of a sentry) call on (someone) for proof of identity.
      • ‘Harkishin was challenged by security guards when he approached the checkout on Sunday.’
      • ‘He moved through the civilian sector without attracting attention and when he passed the gate area without being challenged by the guard he knew he was doing alright.’
      • ‘They formed a circle around Zero and the guard who had challenged her.’
      • ‘Sometimes a guard will challenge me and demand to see my pass.’
      • ‘Despite that, he was able to walk straight into the castle's Waterloo Chamber and was only challenged five minutes after entering the party as he ordered champagne at the bar.’
      • ‘The security guard challenged him outside the building and the youngster gave himself up.’
      • ‘I left the unit twice and walked back in without being challenged either time, entering in ways that didn't require much ingenuity.’
      • ‘It's believe the attacker blew himself up after he was challenged by a security guard as he was trying to enter into the parking lot.’
  • 3Medicine
    Expose (the immune system) to pathogenic organisms or antigens.

    • ‘It was first administered intranasally for 30 minutes to 1 hour before being antigenically challenged with ovalbumin.’
    • ‘The animals were not challenged with antigen after sensitization as the aim was to study the biochemical changes due to sensitization alone.’
    • ‘This suggests that these variables at least remain similarly ranked among individuals, despite the fact that the immune system was challenged by SRBC.’
    • ‘Guinea pigs were challenged with either ovalbumin or saline once weekly, for 12 consecutive weeks.’
    • ‘If the immune system was challenged with a large dose of virus or bacteria, then a large population of T cells was generated by the expansion phase.’

Origin

Middle English (in the senses ‘accusation’ and ‘accuse’): from Old French chalenge (noun), chalenger (verb), from Latin calumnia ‘calumny’, calumniari ‘calumniate’.

Pronunciation

challenge

/ˈCHalənj//ˈtʃæləndʒ/