Definition of challenge in English:

challenge

noun

  • 1A call to take part in a contest or competition, especially a duel.

    ‘he accepted the challenge’
    • ‘A diversity of masculine subjectivities is mobilized around and through Spike as he comes to terms with challenges to his power.’
    • ‘The Australian champion throws off the challenge of Pirrie, the Canadian youth, and just wins a great race.’
    • ‘Needless to say the Sri Lanka Air Force Cycling Club rode to easy victory in more than 20 races with rarely a challenge.’
    • ‘John beat challenges from 399 other contestants to take the title by knocking seven Yorkshire puddings from their perch using a six-ounce black pudding.’
    • ‘The obsession of kite flying can also be seen in competitive kite challenges.’
    • ‘Ian Fitzgerald returned to competitive action in a challenge against Roscommon last Sunday.’
    • ‘But after three years of frantic knitting, they decided to end the challenge, despite reaching halfway.’
    • ‘Yet they gamely rose to the challenge, fighting the Tabs to the bitter end.’
    • ‘I can still see that mighty frame of his winning crucial challenges in vital championship games.’
    • ‘And, those in the treasury benches, far from going on the defensive, took up the challenge.’
    • ‘The dream of gold or silver became a reality when they took up the challenge of a Mayo team with a strong tradition in the sport.’
    • ‘Let us assume for a second that I have decided to take the challenge.’
    • ‘The Edinburgh side were quick to rise to the challenge and with their superior forward play they denied the Border men any more points in the first half.’
    • ‘A promising start for Ilkley in a season that will contain some very stern challenges and some easier contests.’
    • ‘The 1993 election saw Prime Minister Keating fight a challenge from the new Liberal Leader Dr John Hewson.’
    • ‘On this occasion, he mistakenly believed that they would not meet his challenge by fighting.’
    • ‘She has to judge the strength of the challenge from the other crews and dictate the response of her own crew.’
    • ‘This time, they had decided, they would accept the challenge.’
    • ‘Rosa Parks challenged us to fight for our soul, and we accepted the challenge.’
    • ‘Because of this idea of a competitive country, open to the biggest international challenges, I decided to be associated with the creation of A1 Team Portugal.’
    dare, provocation
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 A task or situation that tests someone's abilities.
      ‘the ridge is a challenge for experienced climbers’
      • ‘One of today's greatest challenges for young people working for change is to fight complacency.’
      • ‘My uncle took up the challenge and bolted out to the rescue.’
      • ‘The novice traveler often must undergo tests or challenges, but the experienced holy person is familiar with the road and the terrain and encounters no such problems.’
      • ‘Meeting the pressing security challenges of the 21st century will require new ideas, initiatives, and energy.’
      • ‘The main challenges facing agencies are a shortage of trucks and the poor condition of some roads.’
      • ‘The wannabes leave their lives behind for two months and undergo tests, missions and challenges that are based on real spy training programmes.’
      • ‘I decided to take a challenge and registered myself for a spring session offering of introductory Latin.’
      • ‘Every day, the dozy dozen face a series of challenges and tasks designed to test the sleep-deprived.’
      • ‘It was his brother, Matthew, an architect, who took up the challenge of linking the tiny stone school buildings and turning them into a home.’
      • ‘The opthalmologist Robert D' Amato took up the challenge of finding such a drug in the early 1990s.’
      • ‘Hungry for a new challenge, he fought his way through ‘God Save the Queen’.’
      • ‘He ran the Great North Run last year and took up the challenge of the marathon.’
      • ‘There are only three people in the game at this point who are competitive at the challenges.’
      • ‘The smallest gardens can present the biggest design challenges, but a professional designer can work picture-perfect magic.’
      • ‘One of peace activists' biggest challenges now may be deciding whether broadening their scope will dilute their public profile.’
      • ‘Pat said he coped with illness by treating it as a challenge, fighting for the one life he has and making the most of it.’
      • ‘Many brave souls took up the challenge, but only two could succeed.’
      • ‘Traditional concepts of security were woefully inadequate to meet the new challenges faced by humankind.’
      • ‘Julie gave a presentation on blogging as a social tool and the challenges in deciding what to blog, what to keep private, and what your online self really is.’
      • ‘Good question - though he acknowledges that a seaside property of this one's age offers plenty of challenges in terms of repairs and renovation.’
      problem, difficult task, test, trial
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 An attempt to win a contest or championship in a sport.
      ‘a world title challenge’
      • ‘It was a nice win and one that we needed if we are to mount a challenge for the play-offs.’
      • ‘He gave him the stiffest challenge for the title, and he was in fact the only player to remain uneaten till the end.’
      • ‘Backup Gus's poor performance showed he wasn't up to the playoff challenge.’
      • ‘Unfortunately, Montoya learnt that too late to save his championship challenge for 2003.’
      • ‘Manchester United have won through November in a manner that should presage a championship challenge.’
      • ‘This is after all the biggest club in the Second City and yet it's 12 years since the team managed a decent challenge for the title.’
      • ‘They do not have the depth in squad required to proceed in Europe, and at the same time mount anything like a serious challenge on the domestic title at home.’
      • ‘Trojans turned in a competent performance to brush aside a youthful Northallerton side and keep their title challenge on course.’
      • ‘He is looking to steer his new found sensation into the international fold and a possible challenge for a world title next year.’
      • ‘Chelsea seemed a solid defensive unit who might grind their way towards a Championship challenge.’
      • ‘Although he continued to box, he was unsuccessful in subsequent world title challenges, including one against Evander Holyfield in 1992.’
      • ‘Hatton stresses that he is not looking beyond Rios, who has never been stopped and has twice lost in challenges for world lightweight titles.’
      • ‘Will fixture congestion caused by The Champions League weaken their league challenge?’
      • ‘They'll come second, but should really be staking a claim for a championship challenge.’
      • ‘Bellamy's pace and skill refreshed a somewhat ageing Newcastle side - their title challenge faltered when he was injured.’
      • ‘We need teams like Leeds to make a challenge for the premiership title so we don't see the old same teams winning it year after year’
      • ‘Gomersal took advantage of Idle's week off to continue their challenge for the secondary title.’
      • ‘Heworth, who were champions in 1998, may mount a realistic challenge in a championship race.’
      • ‘Last season, Leeds made a realistic challenge for the premiership title, this season they are even better!’
      • ‘Would Truman State withstand a stiff challenge from rival Drury to win a fifth consecutive team title?’
  • 2An objection or query as to the truth of something, often with an implicit demand for proof.

    ‘a challenge to the legality of the order’
    • ‘Nevertheless, a challenge to the validity of the derogation would certainly be possible.’
    • ‘The Supreme Court rejected a challenge to one of those statutes.’
    • ‘Preliminary rulings are important as a method of indirect challenge to the legality of Community action.’
    • ‘There has been no challenge to the filing of the defence, your Honour.’
    • ‘But the new human rights era in English law also poses a more fundamental challenge to basic doctrines of tort law and procedure.’
    • ‘There was no challenge to Mr Marsh's account of that lunch.’
    • ‘It does put us in a difficult position if in a sense the submissions are going to a de facto challenge to the fiat.’
    • ‘Crane's challenge to the Kansas statute, however, rests on a flawed assumption about the law.’
    • ‘Do I correctly understand that there is no challenge to the validity of the Sex Discrimination Act?’
    • ‘There has never been any challenge to the correctness of the directions in relation to murder, either in this Court or below.’
    • ‘So for those reasons, in our submission, no challenge to our entitlement to compensation has force.’
    • ‘Another matter of challenge to his Honour's sentence is the fixing of the non-parole period.’
    • ‘The prospect of a legal challenge to the Bluestone planning decision is proving a barrier in the minds of prospective job applicants.’
    • ‘If the decision is quashed and does not exist, there is no challenge to an existing decision.’
    • ‘Any challenge to the jurisdiction should be pursued before the Commercial Court judge.’
    • ‘Last week the Victorian Supreme Court rejected a challenge to State legislation known as the Farm Dams Act.’
    • ‘There is no challenge to that conclusion in the respondent's notice.’
    • ‘What is the process for any curial challenge to a ruling not to exercise that exculpatory power?’
    • ‘At trial there was no challenge to the dating of any of the documents.’
    • ‘Was there any challenge to the proposition that her fingerprints were on that spray?’
    • ‘Last September Mr Justice Pitchford rejected their judicial review challenge to the Home Office's stance.’
    • ‘If so, an alliance of parliamentary opponents will mount a court challenge on grounds of human rights.’
    • ‘There is no challenge to the findings of the fact and the appropriate findings are contained in the relevant decision.’
    • ‘It does so for the obvious reason that if there is to be a challenge to the jurisdiction it should be made without delay and before substantial costs are incurred.’
    • ‘It is the statute which produces the results complained of and there is no challenge to the statute itself.’
    • ‘In paragraph 3 the Tribunal found the facts and there is no challenge to the facts as set out in that paragraph.’
    • ‘As Kerry preens as a hero, Swift Boat Veterans for Truth's challenge to his medals is not being heard.’
    • ‘The manner of resolution of it is one that has been cut off at the pass, as it were, because of the challenge to jurisdiction.’
    • ‘The experience and knowledge generated proved significant in the longer term for mounting legal challenges to apartheid legislation.’
    • ‘But it cannot be elevated into a disguised challenge to the validity of the enforcement notice itself.’
    • ‘In order to meet some aspects of the challenge to validity the claimants apply to amend the patent in suit to limit the size of the class of compounds claimed.’
    • ‘There is no serious challenge to the material portions of Larry's evidence.’
    • ‘I note, as well, there was no challenge to the disbursements which, in my view, were reasonable.’
    • ‘Those issues do arise in Courts of Criminal Appeal, of course, in challenge to the conviction.’
    • ‘There was no challenge to that finding in the Full Federal Court.’
    • ‘There is no challenge to this as an accurate record of the way in which the plaintiff mounted the claim for damages.’
    • ‘There has been no challenge to her credibility as a witness, or to her professional competence.’
    • ‘Has there ever been a head-on challenge to the constitutional validity of courts martial in Australia?’
    • ‘Before the court now is the claimant's challenge to both limbs of that decision.’
    • ‘I was thinking by way of challenge to the witnesses who were involved in the theft of the vehicle.’
    confrontation with, dispute with, stand against, test of, opposition, disagreement with
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1 A sentry's call for a password or other proof of identity.
      • ‘In order to proceed further, you must answer the sentry's challenge by entering the countersign’
      • ‘Immediately the sentry shouted a challenge to the gunman who responded by raising his weapon to fire at the sentry.’
      • ‘The challenge must be made at a distance sufficient to prevent your being rushed by the person being challenged.’
      • ‘Partisan poll workers have been accused of intimidating voters with photographs, heckling, and by challenges to their identity and qualifications.’
    2. 2.2Law An objection regarding the eligibility or suitability of a jury member.
      • ‘Most of the hearing time was actually occupied by challenges to the jury, as it were, the panel of military officers that are going to hear the case.’
      • ‘Either party may challenge any juror either for cause or peremptorily and each party shall have three peremptory challenges.’
      • ‘In mounting such a challenge, an attorney argues that based on a person's answers to the lawyer's or the judge's questions, that person has proved himself incapable of carrying out his responsibilities as a juror.’
      • ‘The coroner in charge of the inquest is facing a legal challenge to his decision to appoint 12 royal courtiers to the jury’
      • ‘Members of a jury should be selected at random from the panel, subject to any rule of law as to right of challenge by the defence’
  • 3Medicine
    Exposure of the immune system to pathogenic organisms or antigens.

    ‘recently vaccinated calves should be protected from challenge’
    • ‘Environmental allergens are an important cause of asthma and can be studied in the laboratory by allergen inhalation challenge.’
    • ‘The effect of M. habana vaccination on protection against challenge with M. tuberculosis was evaluated.’
    • ‘Acute antigen challenge of the airways can lead to rapid edema and appearance of plasma proteins in the airways.’
    • ‘All of them have been reported to induce antibodies in mice and provide full or partial protection from live virus challenge.’
    • ‘Both mediators were elevated in patients with asthma after allergen challenge.’

verb

[WITH OBJECT]
  • 1Invite (someone) to engage in a contest.

    ‘he challenged one of my men to a duel’
    • ‘If anyone ever challenges you to an egg eating contest, don't back down.’
    • ‘After learning a few letters, he then challenges the white boys to a writing contest.’
    • ‘Galois was challenged to a duel on 29th May 1832.’
    • ‘During the shooting sessions on their Saturday practice, another Raptor teammate challenged him to a three-point shooting contest.’
    • ‘That'll teach him to challenge me to a food eating contest again.’
    • ‘Before she would agree to marry her suitor, she challenged him to several contests and always won.’
    • ‘Last week a man saw me lifting by myself and challenged me to a contest.’
    • ‘Playboy model Kiana Tom challenged him to a front double-biceps contest - Hayden prevailed.’
    • ‘He was kissing her bottom lip and suddenly his tongue was slowly touching hers, daring her, challenging her to duel with him.’
    • ‘The contest challenged children to describe what they do before bed each night to help them get a good night's sleep - and why.’
    • ‘I want to go around the country challenging people to eating contests!’
    • ‘Onion picklers are being challenged to enter their delicacies in a competition run by the Five Bells pub, in Wood Street.’
    • ‘Colton still stood there holding the sword as if daring any thief to challenge him.’
    • ‘One thing leads to another and the commanding general challenges the soldier to a push-up contest.’
    • ‘Gollum challenges him to a riddle contest, and Bilbo wins.’
    • ‘The next day, Sean was challenged to a duel.’
    • ‘With a sneer she finished and straightened up, adopting an air that dared me to challenge her.’
    • ‘And then he is challenged to a duel by the local thug.’
    • ‘Convention, as expected, provided just one contest with Clashmore's Timmy O'Keeffe challenging outgoing secretary Seamas Grant.’
    • ‘Laodamas encourages him to join the contest and Odysseus asks them why they want to challenge him.’
    dare, summon, invite, bid, throw down the gauntlet to, defy someone to do something
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 Enter into competition with or opposition against.
      ‘incumbent Democrats are being challenged in the 29th district’
      • ‘Flames licked out, consuming the spiritualists who dared to challenge God.’
      • ‘Kids will be kids, and kids, as we know, constantly challenge the status quo.’
      • ‘The Competition Authority does not have the power to challenge state-restricted competition.’
      • ‘As a Christian from an Asian background I challenge this position.’
      • ‘The group respected him because he was the leader, and none would ever dare to challenge him.’
      • ‘That move is being challenged by the Federal Opposition.’
      • ‘Evelyn answered, crossing her arms across her chest, as if daring her mother to challenge her.’
      • ‘Marka's violet eyes glared at him, Simian's light brown ones flashed at her, daring her to challenge him again.’
      • ‘We glared at each other for a few more seconds, his silver eyes narrowed slightly, daring me to challenge him.’
      • ‘He took a step towards me, brown eyes daring me to challenge him.’
      • ‘He challenged calls from the opposition parties for a commission of inquiry to be instituted to probe his wife's appointment.’
      • ‘So, on the question of a separate issue, I do say there was a separate issue here, the implications of the challenge to the planning system as a whole.’
      • ‘As a friend, she asks and presses him to answer the hard questions, directly engaging with one whose thoughts she finds interesting, challenging him to clarify his position.’
      • ‘In 1902, Saint-Pierre was also the bastion of a white supremacy whose power was being challenged by a populist opposition.’
      • ‘He challenged the opposition, which failed to seize the opportunity that had been so long in coming.’
      • ‘No one in the audience bothered, or dared, to challenge him.’
      • ‘The steely gaze is now fixed on that medal and the message is clear: challenge him if you dare.’
      • ‘Luna could feel a presence around Tiamat that dared people to challenge her.’
      • ‘Deadly with a rifle and lightening fast on the draw with a pistol, few dared challenge him.’
      • ‘Mr Hayes has challenged the introduction of competition at the expense of the British Post Office.’
      contend, vie, fight, battle, clash, tussle, grapple, wrestle, wrangle, jockey, wage war, cross swords, lock horns, go head to head
      rival, keep up with, keep pace with, compare with, be the equal of, match up to, match, be on a par with, be in the same class as, be in the same league as, come near to, come close to, touch, approach, approximate, emulate
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 Make a rival claim to or threaten someone's hold on (a position)
      ‘they were challenging his leadership’
      • ‘The latest find suggest the huge pythons might even challenge alligators' leading position in the food chain.’
      • ‘If all the pieces mesh nicely, they could challenge for the East title.’
      • ‘A pioneer in liquid crystal displays, Sharp has seen its once-dominant position challenged by Taiwanese and Korean rivals.’
      • ‘Right now, are Newcastle any nearer to challenging for the title than Liverpool?’
      • ‘The impressive and young Nurney team have not lost sight of the fact that they are one win away from getting themselves into a promotion challenging position.’
      • ‘Well, no one was challenging my position so I would keep it until someone was ready to take my place.’
      • ‘"It will be a change challenging for the title rather than battling relegation".’
      • ‘Fan is so far the only candidate and no one has yet emerged from the democratic camp to challenge the position she has held for the past seven years.’
      • ‘Once that title was won, no Bonaparte in Pakistan would dare to challenge him for the leadership mantle.’
      • ‘Brighton boss Micky Adams believes a resurgent York City will be challenging for promotion next season.’
      • ‘Still, it seems that both teams have the capacity to challenge for honours this season.’
      • ‘By the time he left Cowdenbeath, the club were challenging for promotion.’
      • ‘He is now nicely poised to challenge for the top spot.’
      • ‘Since the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 Britain's Royal Navy had been the dominant fighting fleet in the world; now Germany was challenging this position.’
      • ‘They are challenging for promotion and have a big, experienced squad.’
      • ‘Pat's are now in a strong position to challenge for league honours.’
      • ‘On top of that Coulthard started winning races from the front and challenging Hakkinen's position within the team.’
      • ‘The Bulls were expected to challenge for a playoff spot but instead got blasted early this season.’
      • ‘Kelly would be able to challenge for a starting spot at a position of need.’
      • ‘Today, as a fellow countryman challenges for the championship lead, he worries that the sport's decision to re-embrace computer aids could put drivers at risk in Monaco.’
    3. 1.3with object and infinitive Invite (someone) to do something that one thinks will be difficult or impossible; dare.
      ‘I challenged them to make up their own minds’
      • ‘He had challenged himself to entering the Beton Tower and exploring it alone.’
      • ‘And he challenged the opposition to compile a schedule of the expenditure they would propose and of the reductions they oppose.’
      • ‘The boy who had challenged him to the dare, Narayan, came forward and offered him a bowl of rice wine. Dhan touched the chalice to his lips, and handed it back to Narayan.’
      • ‘Its hardships and difficulties challenge us to look into our soul so that we can ask how deeply we are willing to trust God.’
      • ‘I challenge the Opposition to give us one policy that tells New Zealanders it would change a single thing.’
      • ‘When BBC Radio Gloucestershire first invited him onto the airwaves they challenged him to teach a novice how to use a computer - live on air and all within three hours!’
      • ‘Eckhart really invites us and challenges us to keep learning, perhaps with him, or without him, he probably wouldn't worry if it was without him.’
      • ‘I had randomly approached him and had a little conversation with him due to a dare Riley had challenged me to.’
      • ‘Holding a contest challenging clients to maintain their weight during the holidays can be extremely effective.’
      • ‘A total of 226 teams entered the competition, which challenged them to investigate all aspects of the horticultural industry.’
      • ‘‘The difficult thing is challenging yourself to do something that you haven't done before,’ he says.’
      • ‘Later when a diplomatic stewardess refused him alcohol he got really indignant and challenged her to dare insinuate that he was over the limit.’
      • ‘They invite you and challenge you to live up to your own thoughts and insights.’
      • ‘The defacement competition challenges crackers to deface as many as 6,000 sites in the shortest time possible to win the contest.’
      • ‘You hear stories that challenge you to think harder about who you are.’
      • ‘We are challenged with a most difficult task, which is to uphold the law,’ he said.’
      • ‘Two friends challenged a third to enter the graveyard in the middle of the night and to hammer a large nail into a well known grave.’
      • ‘In the meantime, somebody please convince Better Homes and Gardens Magazine to hold a contest challenging people to build the best robot butler.’
      • ‘Some might say he was challenging me to work harder for my own good.’
      • ‘He challenges us to think hard about what is most ancient and contemporary about being Christian.’
    4. 1.4 Test the abilities of.
      ‘he needed something both to challenge his skills and to regain his crown as the king of the thriller’
      • ‘During the trading year, random events could spring up to challenge your ability to manage the business through such unforeseen situations.’
      • ‘There are so many areas where you can challenge yourself and test your own limits.’
      • ‘The rare breeds hatchery business has challenged them, Drowns says.’
      • ‘No strategy he could come up with would challenge him enough to spark interest.’
      • ‘The facts are that students become disengaged and are not challenged by the curriculum.’
      • ‘To challenge yourself, do the balance poses on a plush carpet or on a wobble board.’
      • ‘The people I see grow old with grace and inspiration are the people who keep challenging themselves.’
      • ‘My directorial task is to challenge my company and myself.’
      • ‘Communication between defenders becomes more difficult and the concentration level of the defender is challenged.’
      • ‘In these cases pupils are constantly challenged by the course and make good progress.’
      test, tax, try
      View synonyms
  • 2Dispute the truth or validity of.

    ‘employees challenged the company's requirement’
    • ‘For example, moving services from secondary to primary care challenges many deeply held assumptions about the role of specialists.’
    • ‘Morrison completes her trilogy by confronting contemporary race and gender representations and challenging declarations of truth and law.’
    • ‘Now no member state would openly challenge the legitimacy of the institution's role.’
    • ‘One part is to challenge directly the notion that there is an obligation to carry out a war against disease.’
    • ‘With his teaching, Jesus challenges this position.’
    • ‘A similar care order secured on the child of another couple has been successfully challenged in the courts.’
    • ‘Anyway, it appears California's speed camera rules have been successfully challenged in court.’
    • ‘By saying she doesn't remember she is tacitly accepting the truth by not challenging it.’
    • ‘But his interpretation of the latest figures as solely attributable to his policies was challenged by the opposition and by the Irish Refugee Council.’
    • ‘He said that either a Newton Hearing, in which the disputed evidence is challenged, or an agreed basis of plea needed to take place before he could proceed with the case.’
    • ‘In 1989 Maitland challenged the settlement, claiming that only a small salary disparity existed between men and women professors.’
    • ‘Davis supporters had filed a lawsuit challenging the validity of some of the recall signatures.’
    • ‘The debate is strikingly one-sided; few civilian or military leaders have publicly challenged the fundamental assumptions of the critics.’
    • ‘At least one murder conviction is to be challenged on the basis of "flawed" fingerprint evidence.’
    • ‘He challenged existing theoretical propositions which he believed were only rationalization of current practices.’
    • ‘Not until Malthus and Ricardo were Smith's optimistic assumptions seriously challenged.’
    • ‘Fast-paced, relevant and worldly, it directly challenges Western notions about the universalizing effects of literature.’
    • ‘They challenge existing theories and accepted musical norms, always striving to keep a step ahead.’
    • ‘Many others before you have made the decision to openly challenge the legitimacy of my marriage.’
    • ‘Both lawsuits challenge the constitutionality of holding immigration hearings in secrecy.’
    question, disagree with, object to, take exception to, confront, dispute, take issue with, protest against, call into question
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1Law Object to (a jury member).
      • ‘Since one is not allowed to select jurors, but only to challenge (deselect) them, traditional approaches to jury selection have focused on identification and challenge of undesirable jurors’
      • ‘The parties to any jury trial may inspect a copy of the panel from which the jury in their trial will be chosen, in order to decide whether any should be challenged’
      • ‘Defence Counsel may challenge two jury candidates and jurors will be asked if they have any connection with case or defendant.’
    2. 2.2 (of a sentry) call on (someone) for proof of identity.
      • ‘He moved through the civilian sector without attracting attention and when he passed the gate area without being challenged by the guard he knew he was doing alright.’
      • ‘Sometimes a guard will challenge me and demand to see my pass.’
      • ‘They formed a circle around Zero and the guard who had challenged her.’
      • ‘The security guard challenged him outside the building and the youngster gave himself up.’
      • ‘Despite that, he was able to walk straight into the castle's Waterloo Chamber and was only challenged five minutes after entering the party as he ordered champagne at the bar.’
      • ‘It's believe the attacker blew himself up after he was challenged by a security guard as he was trying to enter into the parking lot.’
      • ‘I left the unit twice and walked back in without being challenged either time, entering in ways that didn't require much ingenuity.’
      • ‘Harkishin was challenged by security guards when he approached the checkout on Sunday.’
  • 3Medicine
    Expose (the immune system) to pathogenic organisms or antigens.

    • ‘This suggests that these variables at least remain similarly ranked among individuals, despite the fact that the immune system was challenged by SRBC.’
    • ‘Guinea pigs were challenged with either ovalbumin or saline once weekly, for 12 consecutive weeks.’
    • ‘If the immune system was challenged with a large dose of virus or bacteria, then a large population of T cells was generated by the expansion phase.’
    • ‘It was first administered intranasally for 30 minutes to 1 hour before being antigenically challenged with ovalbumin.’
    • ‘The animals were not challenged with antigen after sensitization as the aim was to study the biochemical changes due to sensitization alone.’

Origin

Middle English (in the senses ‘accusation’ and ‘accuse’): from Old French chalenge (noun), chalenger (verb), from Latin calumnia ‘calumny’, calumniari ‘calumniate’.

Pronunciation

challenge

/ˈCHalənj//ˈtʃæləndʒ/