The upper opening of the stomach, where the esophagus enters.
- ‘The worst inflammation and fibrosis in chronic gastroesophageal reflux occurs in the mucosa just above the cardia.’
- ‘Although physical examination did not provide additional information, further endoscopic exploration regarding the cause of the anemia revealed a type 3 ulcer in the cardia of the stomach.’
- ‘They are virtually absent from both the mynenteric plexus and the circular muscle layer in the cardia and fundus, rising to a maximal density at the level of the pylorus.’
- ‘Besides the problem of defining the gastric cardia, there also have been conflicting views regarding the origin and histologic nature of this region.’
- ‘The esophagus extends from the pharynx to the cardia of the stomach.’
Late 18th century: from Greek kardia.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.