Which Joe gave his name to ‘sloppy joes’? We look at five interesting sandwiches and their lexical origins.
The chief Muslim civil and religious ruler, regarded as the successor of Muhammad. The caliph ruled in Baghdad until 1258 and then in Egypt until the Ottoman conquest of 1517; the title was then held by the Ottoman sultans until it was abolished in 1924 by Atatürk.
- ‘In the 7th century the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, and his successors, the Umayyad caliphs, spread Islam from India to Spain.’
- ‘For the next 1,300 years, a succession of Arab, Mameluke, and Ottoman caliphs, beys, and sultans ruled the country.’
- ‘One of the earliest and most distinguished of the Arabic mathematicians was the ninth century scholar Abu Ja'far Mohammed ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi, who was an astronomer to the caliph at Baghdad.’
- ‘The caliphs (successors of The Prophet Muhammad) ruled that couples should not be separate for more than 4 months without permission, and if they were it was grounds for divorce.’
- ‘The first of these Caliphs was al-Aziz, who was the first of the Fatimid caliphs to begin his reign in Egypt.’
- ‘The Omayyad dynasty of caliphs ruled from Damascus until 750, when Shiite Muslims, who descended from the caliph Ali, massacred the Omayyad family.’
- ‘Al-Hakim was the second of the Fatimid caliphs to begin his reign in Egypt; al-Aziz was the first of the Fatimid caliphs to do so.’
- ‘The split originated with a caliph named Hakim, a religious reformer who ruled from Cairo at the turn of the 11 th century.’
- ‘It argues that this early Muslim republicanism was swept away by the subsequent caliphs, beginning with the Umayyads and extending to the Ottomans, who preferred to rule by force and to make claims to absolutism in politics.’
- ‘The sultan was also the caliph, the symbol of Islamic unity and piety.’
- ‘The difference between a caliph and an imam is that a caliph can be anyone accepted by Muslims, but an imam must hail from the Prophet Mohammed's family and be a recognized religious authority (clergy).’
- ‘In orthodox writings the title caliph generally means deputy or successor to the Prophet Muhammad (as in khalifat rasul Allah - deputy to the Messenger of God).’
- ‘The Fatimid caliphs belonged to the Shia tradition, which claimed descent from the fourth Caliph, Ali, and his wife Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet.’
- ‘The primary difference between the two groups is that Sunni Muslims recognize a caliph, who maintains military and political authority in Muslim societies.’
- ‘In the same century, the Buyids, a Persian clan that was also Shi'ite in loyalty, managed to take over the ailing Abassid caliphs in Baghdad.’
- ‘All the Muslim rulers were named as caliphs and had no Prime Minister at all.’
- ‘He was one of the thousands of Arab scholars employed to translate, analyse and develop Greek learning by the Abbasid caliphs, rulers of the great Muslim empire of the 8th to the 13 th centuries.’
- ‘After the First Crusade in 1096 AD set up Christian kingdoms all along the coast of Israel and Lebanon, of course the Fatimid caliphs who had ruled that area before were very upset.’
- ‘Abu Bakr, a close companion of Muhammad, is unanimously selected as the first caliph of Islam.’
- ‘Ali, who was the fourth caliph of Sunni Islam and the first Shia imam, disagreed with Umar's decision at the time, as did other leading Sahaba, or companions of the Prophet.’
- ‘Ali's supporters in Iraq did not accept the authority of the Umayyad caliphs and chose their own spiritual leaders called Imams.’
- ‘By 1055, the Seljuks had spread across Iran to Iraq, where in Baghdad Seljuk's grandson Tughrul liberated the caliph, the supreme religious leader of the Islamic faith, from the control of another dynasty.’
- ‘Every non-Muslim people living under the rule of the caliph enjoyed not only peace and security, but complete autonomy as well which lived on in the form of capitulations in the Turkish Empire up to quite recent times.’
- ‘Their only source of identity was Islam, for the sultan was the caliph, the successor to Mohammad, and the only legitimate leader of all Muslims.’
- ‘In early Islamic history the Shia were a political faction that supported Ali, son-in-law of the prophet Mohammed, who was the fourth caliph, the temporal and spiritual ruler of the Muslim world.’
- ‘There had been a cult of gastronomy at the court of the Sasanian Empire and the caliphs of Baghdad gratefully adopted it.’
- ‘Imam Ali is the fourth caliph to the Muslim, to the Sunni Muslims, and he is the first successor of the Prophet according to the Shia Muslims.’
- ‘In the early 7th century, Muhammad and successive caliphs, took up the Arabic custom of making raids against their enemies.’
- ‘The celebrated scholar and calligrapher Ibn Muqla, who served three caliphs of Baghdad as prime minister and died on July 20,941 AD, copied the Quran in the early Naskh style.’
- ‘Historically, for the Muslim community to act, the leader of that community - the caliph for the Sunnis, the imam for the Shi'ites - had to authorize the action.’
Late Middle English: from Old French caliphe, from Arabic ḵalīfa meaning ‘deputy (of God’) (from the title ḵalīfat Allāh), or meaning ‘successor (of Muhammad)’ (from the title ḵalīfat rasūl Allāh ‘of the Messenger of God)’, from ḵalafa ‘succeed’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.
From Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, discover surprising and intriguing language facts from around the globe.
The definitions of ‘buddy’ and ‘bro’ in the OED have recently been revised. We explore their history and increase in popularity.