Definition of Caddoan in US English:



  • Relating to or denoting a group of North American peoples formerly inhabiting the Midwest, or their languages.

    • ‘They conducted Xray diffraction and petrographic analysis of thin sections from a vessel suspected to have originated in the Caddoan region.’
    • ‘This provenance pattern is significantly different from that found in the Caddoan mound sites and also diverges from the pattern we would expect if flint clay objects were circulated within a UMRV elite prestige-goods network.’
    • ‘The southern distribution of Cahokia-style figurines is heavily concentrated at Caddoan towns along a roughly 120-km segment of the Arkansas River valley of Oklahoma.’
    • ‘The Caddoan language family includes the Caddo, Wichita, Pawnee, and Arikara languages, which are found on the central Plains.’
    • ‘The paste composition relationships of different Caddoan vessel forms and the conclusions of both the petrographic and neutron activation analyses indicate that the Mockingbird ceramics are the product of a local group.’
    • ‘Late Caddo period ceramic mortuary assemblages also differ considerably from region to region within the Caddoan area in the composition of jars, bottles, bowls, and carinated bowls.’
    • ‘If such a network existed, we would expect the pattern to more closely resemble that recorded for the Caddoan region.’
    • ‘The marked difference in the distribution and context of flint clay figures between the UMRV and the Caddoan region points to very different relationships between those two areas and Cahokia.’
    • ‘Thus the Mississippian embraces a wide range of essentially localized groups: the Middle Mississippian, Fort Ancient, South Appalachian Mississippian, Plaquemine Mississippian, Caddoan Mississippian, and the Oneota.’
    • ‘Custis was free to observe Creek ceremonies and Caddoan customs and skills (their talents with the bow put him in mind of stories from the Iliad) and to post a twenty-six-specimen botanical collection downriver.’
    • ‘No other contemporaneous mortuary vessel assemblages from other sites across the Caddoan area resemble those of the Titus phase.’


  • 1A member of any of the Caddoan peoples.

    • ‘The first major civilization was the Mound Builders, known in Oklahoma as the Caddoans.’
    • ‘This defense tactic was used by the Caddoans three times and it kept the settlers at bay long enough for the Indians to reach the deep woods and escape.’
    • ‘Even today, descendants of the interaction of Caddoans and French and Spanish settlers, known as Adaesena, still influence the area.’
    • ‘Like other Caddoans, both groups had a mixed economy with farming and buffalo hunting being important.’
    • ‘And/or why did the Caddoans have to move every so often?’
    • ‘The Pawnees, Wichitas, and perhaps other Caddoans owned the plains-country, and their possessions reached to within a few miles of the Missouri, especially in Kansas.’
    • ‘The Caddoans, on the other hand, were completely agricultural people and along with the Tonkawas resented the Kiowa intrusion.’
    • ‘For example, the Osage, Pawnee, Arikaras, Mandans, Wichitas, and Caddoans remained in permanent farming settlements.’
    • ‘According to tradition, in 1840 the Caddo tribe and the Choctaws met in a fierce battle about two miles SE of Caddo, where the Caddoans came often to hunt and camp.’
    • ‘The mound settlement of the early Caddoans consists of two temple mounds, a burial mound and a portion of the village area.’
    • ‘Painted potsherds originating with the Puebloan people indicate strong trade ties between these Plains Caddoans and their neighbors farther west.’
    • ‘An early scholar believed that they were Caddoans, ancestral to the Wichitas.’
    • ‘The Aays Province area Indians in East Texas, were probably Coahuiltec; hostile toward Caddoans and not very well known by Caddoan guides.’
    • ‘Eventually, after repeated difficulties with French, Spanish, and finally the neighboring Texans, the Caddoans fled by force march in 1859 to Oklahoma, where their descendants still live.’
  • 2The family of languages spoken by the Caddoan peoples, which includes Pawnee and may be related to Siouan and Iroquoian.


From Caddo (a language of the Caddoan family) kaduhdacu, denoting a band belonging to this group, + -an.