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An election held in a single political constituency to fill a vacancy arising during a government's term of office.
- ‘The party's electoral fortunes also revived in the state elections and by-elections.’
- ‘Remember, we fought a general election and two by-elections, and ended up reducing our overdraft.’
- ‘The vacancies mean by-elections could take place if ten electors in the town contact the council in writing by October 25 saying that they want one.’
- ‘For many years successive elections and by-elections results have shown that almost the same number of people cast their votes.’
- ‘Some analysts spoke about a second national election, others described the recent ballots as by-elections.’
- ‘The election in that constituency has been abandoned and a by-election will be held in a month's time.’
- ‘It has superintended two general elections, two municipal elections and numerous by-elections.’
- ‘Party divisions led to huge losses in by-elections and local government elections until the party at the grass roots seemed close to extinction.’
- ‘People stayed away from the polls in their thousands during by-elections in two opposition-held constituencies in Zimbabwe.’
- ‘More than that, for the first time in my recollection the party in power hasn't lost a single by-election.’
- ‘You see it in by-elections and council elections.’
- ‘The voters, their expectations aroused and then frustrated, took revenge at by-elections and local elections.’
- ‘We will need to contest by-elections and begin to prepare for the general election.’
- ‘The race does not appear to be anywhere near close, which explains the voter apathy about these by-elections.’
- ‘It is not known yet whether there will be a by-election or if the vacancy will stand until the town council elections in May.’
- ‘However, the by-elections involved real votes and real people, and the results are no less dismal for them.’
- ‘If he won, the executive would have the option of holding a by-election to fill the seat.’
- ‘Traditionally, voters have used by-elections to express anti-government sentiment.’
- ‘In the past the Liberals had made breakthroughs at by-elections and in gaining a large number of votes in general elections.’
- ‘This strikes me as an odd stance from a candidate hoping to win a by-election.’
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