One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
A layer of more or less stationary fluid (such as water or air) immediately surrounding an immersed object in relative motion with the fluid.
- ‘The convection cells that set up disrupt the boundary layer at the earth's surface, carrying air up from the surface and bringing it down from the upper layers which are carrying the wind.’
- ‘However, this is still enough to support normal respiration rates of small or thin organs, such as fine roots, if the water is flowing fast enough to narrow the boundary layer of unstirred water.’
- ‘Chapter II is a rather comprehensive treatise of the physics of the leaf boundary layer, describing its methods of visualization, with many pictures of specific cases of different attack angles and wind speeds.’
- ‘A detailed study of fluxes through the diffusive boundary layer therefore requires concurrent information on the surface structure.’
- ‘But with the boundary layer disrupted, the temperature of the atoms and molecules blasting into the wing probably exceeded 8,000 degrees near the leading edge breach itself.’
- ‘The boundary layer around the object itself is a critical determining factor as to how the object will behave through the fluid.’
- ‘The differences in absorbed short wave radiation were apparently compensated by a much better convective heat exchange due to the high boundary layer conductance.’
- ‘Clearly water as a weak boundary layer and the dielectric constant of aqueous media do not prevent byssal adhesion on any surface tested, but it remains to be shown how these are specifically mitigated.’
- ‘Thus, scientists still do not know whether this is the only process to fill up the boundary layer when the magnetic fields are aligned.’
- ‘With all other properties constant, the vapour pressure of the compound controls the kinetics of release from a point source into the boundary layer.’
- ‘Solving the equations he showed that the boundary converts the energy stored in the turbulent boundary layer into the sound waves which generate noise.’
- ‘A second microelectrode was deployed from above through the flowing water column and positioned within the diffusive boundary layer directly above the tip of the lower sensor.’
- ‘Under conditions of towing the mechanism without transverse motion, the boundary layer was characterized by a turbulent velocity profile.’
- ‘We also assumed that the stem tissue produces heat at a constant rate, and the heat loss across the boundary layer can occur only through conduction.’
- ‘This suggestion is made because it has been observed in the field and lab that the turbulence in the boundary layer near the water tend to pummel Tritonia's skin.’
- ‘It is shown that under the above three conditions, for each problem of a compressible boundary layer, a corresponding problem of an incompressible boundary layer can be set up by a suitable transformation of variables.’
- ‘The great stability of this layer means that it acts as an impenetrable lid on the bottom layer, the mixed boundary layer.’
- ‘Like many crabs, lobsters, and other crustaceans, stomatopods flick their antennules, probably to increase the velocity of their antennules relative to the surrounding fluid and reduce the boundary layer thickness.’
- ‘Increasing the trichome density increases the thickness and persistence of the boundary layer in leaves, reducing water loss.’
- ‘The idea then is to generate turbulence in the boundary layer ahead of the seam, and in order to do this the ball has to be delivered at a very high speed.’
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