One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
A subatomic particle, such as a photon, which has zero or integral spin and follows the statistical description given by S. N. Bose and Einstein.
- ‘By comparing the fundamental properties of these bosons, it is clear that photons and gravitons are different, although they do share some of the same properties.’
- ‘But if supersymmetry were unbroken, fermions and bosons would be exactly matched in the Universe, and that's not the way things are.’
- ‘This property of making a group of bosons into the same quantum state so they act like a single entity was done in 1995 by physicists at the Joint Institute of Laboratory Astrophysics, in Boulder, Colorado.’
- ‘Atoms and subatomic particles with integer amounts of spin are known as bosons, and according to quantum mechanics, identical bosons prefer to snuggle into a single quantum state at low temperatures.’
- ‘In 1983, this theory was confirmed by the direct observation of the heavy gauge bosons in the powerful particle accelerator at CERN in Geneva.’
- ‘For example, the earliest version of the theory could only accommodate bosons, whereas many hadrons - including the proton and neutron - are fermions.’
- ‘In quantum physics, all elementary particles such as quarks, electrons and gluons are classified as either fermions or bosons, depending on their spin.’
- ‘What happens next in these so-called quantum-degenerate gases depends on whether the atoms are bosons or fermions.’
- ‘Gluons are bosons, carriers of the strong force that bind quarks together into hadrons such as protons or neutrons.’
- ‘Cooling atoms to ultra-low temperatures reveals the striking differences between fermions and bosons at the quantum level.’
- ‘Composite bosons, or mesons, help to hold atoms together.’
- ‘First of all, it is true that a particle that is formed from a quark and an anti-quark is a boson.’
- ‘Higgsinos and gauginos are the names of the fermionic superpartners of the Higgs scalars and gauge bosons respectively.’
- ‘Well, what we find experimentally is that the quasiparticles are almost always fermions or bosons.’
- ‘The behaviour of a gas at temperatures close to absolute zero depends on whether the atoms in the gas are fermions or bosons.’
- ‘In modern particle physics theory, the photon is described as a boson, a particle with integral spin that acts as carrier of the electromagnetic force.’
- ‘The two farthest-reaching bosons are the graviton, the gauge boson for gravity, and the photon, the gauge boson for electromagnetism.’
- ‘The photon, a boson, has a fermion partner called the photino.’
- ‘The Pauli exclusion principle does not apply, however, to particles with integral spin, known as bosons, such as photons.’
- ‘They have bosons and fermions, for example, and gauge theories that are similar to those in the Standard Model.’
1940s: named after S. N. Bose (see Bose, Satyendra Nath) + -on.
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