Main definitions of bluff in English

: bluff1bluff2bluff3

bluff1

noun

  • An attempt to deceive someone into believing that one can or will do something.

    ‘the offer was denounced as a bluff’
    [mass noun] ‘his game of bluff’
    • ‘The psychology of poker involves bluffing and detecting the bluffs of others.’
    • ‘The internet rumour mill has been working overtime, a game of bluff and counter-bluff spreading like a computer virus.’
    • ‘His denunciation of my research is an audacious bluff, believable only by those who have never opened my book.’
    • ‘A last-minute offer may be a ruse or a bluff but I'm the guy who ought to make that call.’
    • ‘How many games of double-and-triple bluff are going on here?’
    • ‘It should be obvious why I badly want to believe that this is a bluff or a ruse.’
    • ‘She glanced off the platform and then back at him, hoping that he would believe her bluff and cough up the money.’
    • ‘With limited resources and the inability to properly police such a vast area, the colonial authorities were playing little more than a game of bluff.’
    • ‘There are probably those who still believe that this is a bluff.’
    • ‘But apart from bluffs, tricks, and mayhem, the coming year may be a boon for babies.’
    • ‘We've seen lots of boasts and threats and feints and bluffs, but generally speaking organizations like this only resort to threats when they're not actually capable of real operations.’
    • ‘Still, for a man who has a history of bluffs and mind games not just in the Tour but throughout the season, no-one will immediately rule him out here, in a race he has won two times before.’
    • ‘The odds hadn't been in my favor as it seemed he was leading me on a series of bluffs and double-bluffs, but always keeping pace and never breaking the stare.’
    • ‘Trouble is, the first bluff is a life strategy while the second bluff is a political convenience.’
    • ‘They think the government is playing a game of bluff.’
    • ‘This over-reaction is of course a bluff, an attempt to silence opposition, almost suggesting that these practices, reprehensible to me, are necessary for secular democracy.’
    • ‘They had informed him that my attempt was no bluff - it was not done to get attention - a half attempt.’
    • ‘It is hard to read the auguries, so complex is this interplay of deception, self-deception, bluster and bluff.’
    • ‘I was beginning to believe it had all been a big bluff…’
    • ‘It would be comforting to think he is playing no more than a game of bluff with the whisky companies, privately sharing their scepticism about strip stamps while forcing them to come up with a convincing alternative.’
    deception, subterfuge, pretence, sham, fake, show, deceit, false show, idle boast, feint, delusion, hoax, fraud, masquerade, charade
    trick, stratagem, ruse, manoeuvre, scheme, artifice, machination
    humbug, bluster, bombast, bragging
    codology
    put-on, put-up job, kidology
    View synonyms

verb

[NO OBJECT]
  • 1 Try to deceive someone as to one's abilities or intentions.

    ‘he's been bluffing all along’
    ‘he bluffed his way onto an Antarctic supply vessel’
    [with object] ‘the object is to bluff your opponent into submission’
    • ‘Although my teacher certainly wasn't bluffing, I suspect we were both looking for the same thing: a cheap fix of escapism.’
    • ‘Now it seems he may have been bluffing all along, thus the efficacy of such a coalition seems doubtful.’
    • ‘But by bluffing and showing confidence and strength simply as a base attitude, I prevented anything getting out of hand.’
    • ‘There was a magic revealed program on TV this weekend and I am sure that the magicians were bluffing with their revelations.’
    • ‘What private assurance did he have from the French that they were bluffing about a veto, or, if he had none, who advised him that they were probably bluffing?’
    • ‘However, it is entirely legal to try to mislead the opponents about your intentions by bluffing in the bidding, naming a contract completely different from the one you really want to play.’
    • ‘And the truth is this: I was bluffing - I didn't know Rob's last name either.’
    • ‘By bluffing and faking, you have to somehow provoke and deceive this system of defense.’
    • ‘Furthermore, when I asked in the staffroom if the little horror was bluffing, I was told that in all likelihood, he was telling the truth.’
    • ‘That history, combined with his decision last week to give Congress more time to consider the transaction, has led some in Congress to conclude that he is bluffing and will give lots of ground.’
    • ‘‘I might just google ‘my wife doesn't understand me’ and see what I get,’ I threatened, but I was bluffing.’
    • ‘Both their livelihoods depend on the ability to bluff and sniff out fraud.’
    • ‘Right up to the end the dictator who fooled the world was bluffing - even to his closest aides.’
    • ‘We also take more risks than men give us credit for which means it can be very hard to tell when a woman is bluffing.’
    • ‘She'd read each one of them as they appeared - and she wasn't bluffing - she really knew them and thought about them a lot.’
    • ‘He could have been bluffing, but we couldn't take that chance.’
    • ‘And they know you aren't bluffing because, well, they'd do the same, and they know you've backed yourself into a corner.’
    • ‘I'm fairly sure she knew I was bluffing with a large part of my ‘history lesson’.’
    • ‘Thankfully, I never discovered whether this gang of kids were bluffing or not because a strapping man who had been drinking in the pub opposite sauntered on to the street.’
    • ‘I could get into their heads, so I knew if they were bluffing.’
    deceive, delude, mislead, trick, fool, hoodwink, dupe, hoax, take in, beguile, humbug, bamboozle, gull, cheat
    pretend, sham, fake, feign, put on an act, put it on, lie, hoax, pose, posture, masquerade, dissemble, dissimulate
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1(in a card game) bet heavily on a weak hand in order to deceive opponents.
      • ‘Jade asked knowing full well Laura was bluffing, and like every card game she had with Laura, she brought out her ace.’
      • ‘This should have been confirmed when he raised my modest bet, but I was somehow blinded by my pair of aces and trying to convince myself against my better judgement and all evidence that he was bluffing.’
      • ‘If you don't ever get caught bluffing you almost certainly don't bluff enough.’
      • ‘Those who play showhand rely not only on their skill, luck, courage and concentration, but also on their ability to bluff.’
      • ‘I was tempted to go all in and see if he was bluffing, but decided it would be embarrassing if I was the first to get knocked out (what with 46 looking on expectantly all this time), so I folded.’

Phrases

  • call someone's bluff

    • 1Challenge someone thought to be bluffing.

      ‘she was tempted to call his bluff, hardly believing he'd carry out his threat’
      • ‘Or, what if we called their bluff and didn't give them the money and see what happens then?’
      • ‘He had called her bluff, and she had met his challenge head on.’
      • ‘In a very real sense, I think the big commercial publishers now are clearly calling our bluff.’
      • ‘I think furiously, she's calling my bluff, I'll push even further’
      • ‘Transfolk, increasingly numerous, loud and proud, are calling our bluff.’
      • ‘I called his bluff, expecting him to laugh - to turn around and leave.’
      • ‘His premise is that Democrats are ‘aghast’ at the president's ‘new’ Social Security proposal because he ‘has finally called their bluff.’’
      • ‘In effect, where polluters had previously argued that emission control was too expensive, the new system called their bluff.’
      • ‘And it's about time someone from the conservative side of politics called their bluff.’
      • ‘In this case, the concerned students have called the publication 's bluff, pointing out that consideration for the larger community was not taken when the ‘back door’ article was produced.’
      • ‘And should it respond by accommodating its demands, or by calling its bluff?’
      • ‘But now that we know people are doing this, it's time for us to start calling their bluff: You aren't really talking to anyone are you?’
      • ‘If you gave because you liked the site, or even just wanted to humiliate me by calling my bluff, you're free to leave it - but believe me, I would not fault you in the slightest for asking for your money back.’
      • ‘Right or wrong, some of the guards called their bluff, and we can learn from that.’
      • ‘Just as the sailor will bring lively tales of adventure, he may also be able to ferret out falsehoods and call deceivers' bluffs, because he has gained wisdom from life's challenges and insights into human nature.’
      • ‘Over the past few weeks, the president has called their bluff.’
      • ‘The bluff was called and it was game back on as players hastily deserted favourite watering holes.’
      • ‘Two idealistic activists, however, called his bluff.’
      • ‘For these emotions to work, they must have a kind of inevitability built into them, such that, when someone calls your bluff, you cannot avoid carrying out your promise or threat.’
      • ‘When anybody calls their bluff and punctures this self-delusion, they can only cope by insulting and vilifying their critics.’
    • 2(in poker or brag) make an opponent show their hand in order to reveal that its value is weaker than their heavy betting suggests.

      • ‘I called his bluff correctly though and I ended up getting all the chips back off him and knocking him out so was all good in the end.’
      • ‘One company has called the other's bluff and laid down on the table four Kings - four of a kind.’
      • ‘There were two reasons why I called his bluff.’
      • ‘When not daring an opponent to call his bluff, he seduced them.’
      • ‘I'm just a little disappointed that it went this far to play poker and to have someone call your bluff.’

Origin

Late 17th century (originally in the sense blindfold, hoodwink): from Dutch bluffen brag or bluf bragging The current sense (originally US, mid 19th century) originally referred to bluffing in the game of poker.

Pronunciation:

bluff

/bləf/

Main definitions of bluff in English

: bluff1bluff2bluff3

bluff2

adjective

  • Direct in speech or behavior but in a good-natured way.

    ‘a big, bluff, hearty man’
    • ‘Intentionally rough, the bluff critic reacts here as well to the spectacular reception of the poem.’
    • ‘They allow her to reflect on what lies behind his macho, bluff exterior and why she reacts to it in the way that she does, in a supportive, non judgmental setting.’
    • ‘The bluff sea-captains and commercial adventurers who founded the Australian colonies had no special gift for symbolism, but they knew what was expected of them.’
    • ‘Some thought the bluff carrier commander was borderline nuts.’
    • ‘Beneath his bluff exterior, he is a narrow-minded reactionary with merely some financial success.’
    • ‘This is a play about transformations: a boy into a man, a man into a king, enmity to possible love (the wooing scene between the bluff Henry and the enchanting French princess is a delight).’
    • ‘Matching his rugged features he cultivated a bluff manner, parading humble origins and ridiculing a man who corrected his accent.’
    • ‘Blunt Limerick man and bluff Tipperary man did not enjoy the most harmonious of relationships.’
    • ‘He was a bluff, domineering character who exuded confidence though politically he often showed signs of naivety.’
    • ‘Megan looked over and up at a tall and bluff boy she's seen at school before standing in the doorway of what seemed to be his compartment.’
    • ‘A tough, bluff man, he had no desire to relive ancient trouble.’
    • ‘The man, beneath his coarse and bluff exterior, is haunted by a sense of his own inadequacy.’
    • ‘He flattered his clients on their excellent judgment in buying from him rather than his competitors, but he could be bluff and straightforward when necessary.’
    • ‘HE'S the gruff, bluff detective who's as likely to bawl you out for making bad tea as to snap the handcuffs on a villain - so would you let him loose in a fighter jet?’
    • ‘His amiable personality and bluff manner had an impact and he came across as the straightforward soldier, doing his best for the country.’
    • ‘Taking all of this into account, though there seemed to be an underlying sadness, I got the distinct impression that his bluff attitude was covering up something.’
    • ‘He had a bluff and ebullient, although sympathetic manner, and was hospitable, always the life and soul of the party frequently one he had given himself.’
    • ‘There is nothing of the bluff and blustery manner, or the mean looks and imperious nature with which he had brought to life several characters in quick succession, the previous day.’
    • ‘During trips home we'd have these bluff conversations about money and prospects, pensions and security.’
    • ‘One may counter that his music can take the bluff and hearty approach.’
    plain-spoken, straightforward, blunt, direct, no-nonsense, frank, open, candid, outspoken, to the point, forthright, unequivocal, downright, hearty
    rough, abrupt, curt, gruff, short, brusque, not afraid to call a spade a spade, speaking as one finds
    genial, approachable, good-natured, friendly
    straight from the shoulder, upfront
    View synonyms

Origin

Early 18th century (in the sense surly, abrupt in manner): figurative use of bluff. The current positive connotation dates from the early 19th century.

Pronunciation:

bluff

/bləf/

Main definitions of bluff in English

: bluff1bluff2bluff3

bluff3

noun

  • 1A steep cliff, bank, or promontory.

    • ‘The Marin Headlands, the dramatic bluffs and canyons just north of the Golden Gate Bridge, are a perspective-altering place.’
    • ‘The East Coast consists of several narrow bands of lowlands that lead to an intermediate zone of steep bluffs and ravines abutting a 1650 foot escarpment which provides access to the central highlands.’
    • ‘To help protect homes from falling into the ocean, some oceanside towns have reinforced the bluffs and cliffs with sea walls, but sea walls deprive beaches of the sand that normally erodes from the bluffs and cliffs.’
    • ‘Al Deir is encircled by the rounded bluffs and ridges of a range which plunges 1500 metres to Wadi Araba, a valley linking the Dead Sea to the Red Sea.’
    • ‘The bluff was wooded, and we could see but little.’
    • ‘At this point, the steep bluffs lie approximately 30 m above the floodplain below.’
    • ‘It is characterized by a permanent stream meandering through steep sandstone bluffs.’
    • ‘We are drifting in the surge line between rock pinnacles and the bluff and I cannot believe my eyes.’
    • ‘Deep ravines cut the northern shoreline off from inland settlements and transportation routes, and steep shale bluffs made it difficult to land goods on the shore.’
    • ‘At the edge of the bluffs, visitors get beautiful views of the ocean and headlands.’
    • ‘Below stretched Carnmore, a water-filled trench hemmed in by brooding peaks and startling rock bluffs, mile upon mile of rugged isolation.’
    • ‘Planning the campaign involved myriad geographical factors, including the Mississippi Delta region, streams of various navigabilities, steep banks, and bluffs northeast of the city.’
    • ‘In fact there are river banks and bluffs, coulees and crowns, sandhills and blue hills and unnamed prominences, ravines.’
    • ‘These river bank bluffs are generally lined with woody vegetation that support a flora which is sporadically seasonally flooded, and is more open and prone to disturbance than other wooded inland sites.’
    • ‘During the breeding season, Prairie Falcons inhabit dry, open areas with cliffs and bluffs for nesting.’
    • ‘From the shadows came the roar of the waves as the beach swelled beneath the cliff bluffs.’
    • ‘Here, gnarled sandstone bluffs drop straight into the sea.’
    • ‘On the steep bluffs north of downtown Seattle grows an impressive array of what is arguably the Pacific Northwest's most beautiful arboreal treasures: the Pacific madrone.’
    • ‘He hoped to strike the Indian camp simultaneously from the north and south - but had not counted on the maze of bluffs and ravines he would have to contend with to get there.’
    • ‘The slopes between the crags and rocky bluffs were still snowbound and while the snow was soft enough to kick steps into, the ground below was still iron-hard which is usually the result of several weeks of sub-zero temperatures.’
    cliff, ridge, promontory, headland, crag, bank, slope, height, peak, escarpment, scarp, precipice, rock face, overhang
    eminence
    View synonyms
  • 2Canadian A grove or clump of trees.

    • ‘A couple of miles north and south the trees thicken up and the farms all have bluffs of trees on them so it is quite scenic.’
    • ‘The sun is just starting to illuminate the horizon of a cloud-laden sky and the dragons are behind a bluff of trees right on the city limits.’
    • ‘Outcrops of the Prairie Grove often form bluffs and exhibit low - angle, trough cross-bedding.’
    • ‘Today, all that remains is a bluff of trees in the middle of a cultivated field.’
    • ‘It is comprised of bush, rock, two bluffs, and a swamp.’

adjective

  • (of a cliff or a ship's bow) having a vertical or steep broad front.

    • ‘The stark rock, fading lower green fields, and deep blue of the ocean comes as a shock after the flat lush landscape and bluff coastline that characterises the rest of the county.’
    • ‘Half the barges were away, already sweeping downriver with thin, white mustaches under their bluff bows, when a commotion awoke ashore.’
    • ‘Here a narrow bluff trail crosses open country known today as the East West Ranch, affording views back toward pine forests embracing the town.’
    • ‘This attached vortex force is the source of pressure drag on a bluff body, such as a sphere or a flat plate normal to a steady flow.’
    • ‘Little or no mound fill was added to the westernmost edge of the mound with the contours of this area remaining essentially the same as the natural bluff ridge.’

Origin

Early 17th century (as an adjective, originally in nautical use): of unknown origin. The Canadian sense dates from the mid 18th century.

Pronunciation:

bluff

/bləf/