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1An arrangement of letters or symbols that each occur n times, in a square array of n² compartments so that no letter appears twice in the same row or column.
‘Both the creation and the solution of Sudoku puzzles relate to the ‘quasigroup completion problem’ of completing a partially-filled Latin square.’
‘The original edition contained an early example of a problem about orthogonal Latin squares.’
‘Here are two examples of Latin squares of order 4.’
‘This study of symmetric functions led him to study partitions and Latin squares, and for many years he was considered the leading worker in this area.’
1.1A Latin square used as the basis of experimental procedures in which it is desired to control or allow for two sources of variability while investigating a third.
‘In this article we present a new algorithm, which uses mutually orthogonal Latin squares to perform enhanced sampling of the conformational space.’
‘We used the orthogonal Latin square design for three treatments, which included all six possible sequences.’
‘Treatments were balanced across visits using the Latin square method.’
‘The order of the four conditions for each graph type was counterbalanced across participants using Latin squares, and the order of graph types was also counterbalanced.’
‘Statistical design was a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square replicated five times.’
‘There were four blocks of four irrigation treatments for each variety in a Latin square arrangement, with a single experimental row and two guard rows.’
‘The order of the six conditions for each graph type was counterbalanced across participants using Latin squares.’