(1767–1845) 7th president of the US 1829–37; known as Old Hickory. A Tennessee Democrat, he served in the US House of Representatives 1796–97 and as a US Senator 1797–98, 1823–25. As a general in the US Army during the War of 1812, he became known for his successful defense of New Orleans. As president, he vetoed the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States, opposed the nullification issue in South Carolina, and initiated the spoils system. During his administration, the national debt was paid off completely, the Wisconsin Territory was organized, Michigan was admitted as the 26th state, and the independence of Texas was recognized.