One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
1The warmest season of the year, in the northern hemisphere from June to August and in the southern hemisphere from December to February.‘this plant flowers in late summer’‘a long hot summer’as modifier ‘summer holidays’figurative ‘the golden summer of her life’
- ‘The family usually spends summer in Dubrovnik so that both children can see their grandparents.’
- ‘The summers of recent years have also been very disappointing and this has emphasised the need to get amenities in place to keep tourists entertained when the weather is bad.’
- ‘School finished up for the summer holidays on Wednesday June 26th, with a party for the children.’
- ‘The Mediterranean climate has long dry sunny warm summers, and the winters often see periods of intense rainfall.’
- ‘Reagan loved living in Dixon, where he spent the rest of his school years, working summers as a lifeguard at a Dixon park along the Rock River.’
- ‘Fermi generally spent his summers at Los Alamos.’
- ‘The southern tip of South America is chilly, even in the summer month of December.’
- ‘Scorching temperatures and bright sunshine have also given a much needed boost to seaside resorts around Kerry, which have suffered a lot because of dull summers in recent years.’
- ‘According to records, June is the wettest summer month receiving an average of 58.5mm of rain.’
- ‘My friend is a retired physician who spends his summers in Minnesota and winters in sunny Scottsdale, Arizona.’
- ‘Much of southern Australia experiences a typical Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and predominantly winter rainfall.’
- ‘But all summer he feared for his life, such was the level of noise outside his house and the number of attacks on his home.’
- ‘It has turned quickly to summer here too with weather in the 70s and 80s.’
- ‘The inland region has a continental climate with very cold winters, hot, humid summers, and spring and autumn seasons that are often rainy.’
- ‘With Christmas almost over, our thoughts will soon be turning to summer package holidays.’
- ‘In the four summers I worked there, I never once heard of a customer getting the wrong product, or in the wrong amount.’
- ‘For the first seven years, I spent my summers here on my own, looking after the house and garden, because Peter was still working in Hamburg.’
- ‘Although the number of new cases is declining, cattle are about to be let out of winter quarters and sheep are desperate to be moved to summer pastures.’
- ‘This site has a humid continental climate with warm summers, cool winters and no distinct dry season.’
- ‘Some summers I do most of my fishing only after the sun goes down.’
- 1.1Astronomy The period from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox.
- ‘Simply put, you are more likely to see a lunar eclipse during a long winter night than a short summer night.’
- ‘The five days that weren't included were in the middle of the summer when Sirius, the dog star, can be seen near the rising sun.’
- ‘The Autumnal Equinox signals the end of the summer months and the beginning of winter.’
- 1.2summersliterary Years, especially of a person's age.‘a girl of sixteen or seventeen summers’
- ‘Even though he is eight summers everyone knows he is nay a fighter.’
- ‘After sixteen summers a child of the plain, no matter what gender or tribe, goes through the rite of passage.’
- ‘At the age of eight summers his father had been assassinated.’
1no object, with adverbial of place Spend the summer in a particular place.‘well over 100 birds summered there in 1976’
- ‘She turns out to be Allison Nelson, the daughter of Charleston old money, summering in the country.’
- ‘In that year, Trelawney, Shelley, Byron, and some other friends were summering in Italy.’
- ‘The family lived in Budapest and summered on the family estates in the southern Carpathians - which Patrick Leigh Fermor has called ‘the most resented frontier in Europe’.’
- ‘Diane and John Connelly are seen toasting Patsy and Greg Fourticq at O'Rourke's on their return to Houston after summering in Colorado Springs, Colo.’
- ‘He had homes in New York, where he wintered, and in Florida, where he summered, and he moved in a circle with Babe Ruth and Errol Flynn, Bing Crosby and Bob Hope.’
- ‘Similarly in the remote Wakhan corridor in the North East of Afghanistan a nomad people who summered there were trapped when the passes were mined.’
- ‘My hotel room here is stylish, in that faded Mediterranean way I came to know so well while summering with my family in Majorca.’
- ‘I know students who summered in Israel, volunteers on collective farms working to build a spiritually-based socialism.’
- ‘Back from summering in their Malibu palace, Mary and Vince Kickerillo joined the party along with Regina Rogers, Renee and Ben Danziger, Sybil Balasco, and Jerome and Nadine Moon of Who Made the Cake!’
- ‘I felt that even then, even though the boys had summered and were coming back, they were still massively disappointed by the ending to the season.’
- ‘She's a rich kid, summering at the family's mansion in North Carolina while he is a local labourer and poet.’
- ‘Birds summering in northern Europe, where waters are closed by ice in winter, show the strongest migratory movements.’
- ‘But here there is a bit of a paradox, for we should be at the halfway point of the migration, meaning that we should be summering or wintering and then heading back to our point of origin.’
- ‘Fifteen or twenty years later, I spent an hour driving my wife and son around the little twisty roads of Stocksund, trying to find the house we'd summered in but you can't reach that country when you're driving.’
- ‘These birds summer in Alberta Canada and winter at the Aransas Wildlife Refuge in Texas.’
- ‘The family lived at first in prosperous circumstances, wintering in Smyrna and summering at the seaside village called Skala.’
- ‘Sources say Carter just cancelled those long-held reservations and instead will be summering at a friend's home in Tuscany.’
- 1.1with object Pasture (cattle) for the summer.
- ‘My husband and his father raised beef cattle for many years and they summered the cattle on a piece of mountain property which they owned.’
- ‘They summered the cattle in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of eastern California and then moved them each fall to winter pasture in the lower elevations of western Nevada where the home ranch is located.’
Old English sumor, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch zomer, German Sommer, also to Sanskrit samā ‘year’.
A horizontal bearing beam, especially one supporting joists or rafters.
- ‘Overhead, in the center, was the summer-tree, a timber 20x14 inches, into which the joist was framed, planed (and so was the under side of the chamber floor), with no lath or plaster.’
Middle English: from Old French somier ‘packhorse’, from late Latin sagmarius, from Greek sagma ‘packsaddle’.
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