One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
A salt or ester of sulphuric acid, containing the anion SO₄²⁻ or the divalent group —OSO₂O—.
- ‘They are immediately downwind of coal-burning electric plants in the Ohio and Tennessee valleys, and their high elevation makes them extremely susceptible to sulfates and nitrates moving through the atmosphere.’
- ‘The respirable portion of particulates can include acid condensates, sulfates, nitrates, and organic compounds.’
- ‘Inorganic anions such as chloride, nitrate and sulphate can be separated in about five minutes.’
- ‘The oils are first reacted with sulfuric acid, which converts them into sulfates.’
- ‘Organic sulfates are esters and are formed by reacting an alcohol with cold sulfuric acid or by the reaction of sulfuric acid with a double bond in an alkene.’
- ‘Oxygen levels also had significant effects on ocean chemistry: increasing continental weathering rates and providing sulfates and nitrates as nutrients.’
- ‘The technique can identify iron-bearing phases (such as oxides, silicates, sulfides, sulfates, and carbonates), as well as the amount of iron in each phase and the presence of iron in various oxidation states.’
- ‘Herbicides include a wide range of compounds, such as common salt, sulfates, and ammonium and potassium salts.’
- ‘Tiny particles of soot or chemical compounds like sulphates reflect sunlight and they also promote the formation of bigger, longer lasting clouds.’
- ‘Black smokers, debouching fluids at 350°C into the overlying sea water sit atop a mound of hydrothermal minerals, including sulphides, sulphates, oxides, and silicates.’
- ‘Other contaminants include arsenic, chromium, cyanides, phenols, sulphates, gases and ‘combustible materials’.’
- ‘Biodiesel reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulates.’
- ‘These minerals can be supplemented in the diet as inorganic oxides, sulfates, or organic chelates with the mineral bound to an amino acid or peptide complex.’
- ‘It occurs in all kinds of minerals, such as oxides, carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates.’
- ‘They have a somewhat chalky flavor, which is indicative of sulfates, but rules out regular sodium chloride.’
- ‘The magnesium corrosion control rod present in many hot water heaters can chemically reduce naturally occurring sulfates to hydrogen sulfide.’
- ‘Leachate typically contains organic compounds together with metal chlorides and sulphates, and has a high chemical oxygen demand due to the presence of reducing species.’
- ‘Comprised primarily of soot, sulfates, nitrates, fly ash, and organic particles, aerosols both absorb significant amounts of light and scatter sunlight back into the atmosphere.’
- ‘Common among these are bicarbonates, calcium, chlorides, fluorides, magnesium and sulfates - all of which can cause salt stress if found in excessive amounts.’
- ‘The Podolia ash beds consist largely of clay minerals accompanied by a variety of primary volcanogenic crystals and secondary sulphides, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and silicates.’
Late 18th century: from French sulfate, from Latin sulphur (see sulphur).
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