Definition of ribosome in English:



  • A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.

    • ‘Motors, such as RNA polymerases and ribosomes, produce trailing strands of mRNA and protein, respectively.’
    • ‘Since these patterns are almost identical, it would appear that HMP associates with ribosomes or ribosomal proteins.’
    • ‘Thus transcribing RNA polymerases and ribosomes may all be bound to the same RNA molecule while marching in the same direction.’
    • ‘This necessitated a mechanism for the import of the now nucleus-encoded proteins, which are synthesized at free ribosomes in the cytoplasm.’
    • ‘The smallest RNA component of almost all ribosomes is 5S ribosomal RNA.’


1950s: from ribonucleic acid + -some.