Definition of radical in English:

radical

adjective

  • 1(especially of change or action) relating to or affecting the fundamental nature of something; far-reaching or thorough.

    ‘a radical overhaul of the existing regulatory framework’
    • ‘The proposal makes sweeping, radical changes in the law, but the regulatory analysis does not reflect them.’
    • ‘Fourth, the tax system needs radical reform.’
    • ‘‘The question,’ he added, ‘is whether the Executive is actually up for radical change?’’
    • ‘Efforts to improve air quality in York are not radical enough to make a real difference, councillors have claimed.’
    • ‘This will undergo a radical change, with an extension to the northbound M606 and a new routing system around it.’
    • ‘There have been radical changes in the regulation of air travel, from a newly federalized security system to tighter restrictions on what items can be brought onto a plane.’
    • ‘It could be many years before the conditions are such that a radical reform of Social Security is possible.’
    • ‘The reason for this kind of fear-mongering is obvious: it's a way to gin up support for radical reforms.’
    • ‘Thailand combined the introduction of universal access to subsidised health care with a radical shift in funding away from urban hospitals to primary care.’
    • ‘‘This marks a radical change in the paradigm for selling time on television networks,’ he says.’
    • ‘Meanwhile, dams associated with hydroelectric plants can cause radical disruption of area ecosystems.’
    • ‘But even here, the radical change began with federal courts taking major areas of public policy away from state legislatures.’
    • ‘Yet not a single political party is uncompromisingly committed to the sort of programme of radical reform which would rectify these horrific wrongs.’
    • ‘As a result of these classes, Emmy made the radical decision to abandon school teaching and make a career as a mathematician.’
    • ‘Both groups would be affected by a radical change in the business climate.’
    • ‘The essential elements of power remained the same without a radical shift in strategy or force structure.’
    • ‘The people are exhausted from the radical changes that affect their way of life.’
    • ‘Des Ball says the Intelligence system needs radical overhaul.’
    • ‘Are the arguments of those who predict a radical change in the nature of 21st century wars that groundless after all?’
    • ‘The rest of the time, they assumed that economic rationalism implies support for radical free-market reform.’
    thoroughgoing, thorough, complete, total, entire, absolute, utter, comprehensive, exhaustive, root-and-branch, sweeping, far-reaching, wide-ranging, extensive, profound, drastic, severe, serious, major, desperate, stringent, violent, forceful, rigorous, draconian
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    1. 1.1 Forming an inherent or fundamental part of the nature of someone or something.
      ‘the assumption of radical differences between the mental attributes of literate and non-literate peoples’
      • ‘It should be easy enough to guess the reason for this radical difference in behaviour.’
      • ‘The following is a marvellous, energizing, healing ceremony that really does make a radical and lasting, difference in your life.’
      • ‘We want to make a radical difference to the prospects and perception of the town.’
      • ‘Only those who do not understand the radical difference between the movement of socialist women and bourgeois suffragettes can think this way.’
      • ‘But then again, a subtle difference was preferable to a radical one, and it did give me a short-term confidence boost.’
      • ‘The chapter demonstrates that fantasies and day dreams may have radical differences in both structure and content, depending on the use to which we put them.’
      • ‘The story also illustrates the most radical difference between mania and hypomania.’
      • ‘This is the first time we have encountered such radical differences within one lot.’
      • ‘To that end, you'll notice a radical difference in speed and handling depending on the size of the car.’
      • ‘He said yesterday: ‘Football results do not make a radical difference to society but they can have an impact.’’
      • ‘Iceland displays some radical cultural differences with its temporary American inhabitants.’
      • ‘The radical injustice of early capitalism gave birth to the overcompensation of totalitarian communism.’
      • ‘For translators, the radical differences between Chinese and English are a source of despair and opportunity.’
      • ‘Note also the radical difference between how our culture defines ‘fashionable’ thinness for men and women.’
      • ‘Here, and elsewhere in the installation, one radical difference between the classical and modern sculptures was made evident.’
      • ‘These radical differences reveal crucial changes in American culture.’
      • ‘There's a radical difference between this kind of traditionalist politics and laissez-faire conservative politics.’
      • ‘As for the property rights of authors to their works, the consequences of these differences are radical.’
      • ‘The difference between then and now was so radical he was at loss about what to think.’
      • ‘Since independence, an emergent class structure has become apparent in urban sectors with radical differences in wealth between the rich and poor.’
      fundamental, basic, essential, quintessential
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    2. 1.2 (of surgery or medical treatment) thorough and intended to be completely curative.
      • ‘A radiographic evaluation is not indicated unless radical treatment is being contemplated.’
      • ‘Each of the main treatments radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and monitoring has risks.’
      • ‘The same diagnostic delay led to 64 patients having more radical treatment than necessary.’
      • ‘In patients who are unfit to have radical surgery, radiotherapy may be administered to the inguinal lymph nodes.’
      • ‘The rest of the pamphlet contained a list of treatment options ranging from modified radical mastectomy to hormonal therapy.’
      • ‘Men could then be offered radical surgery if their test results showed a worsening trend.’
      • ‘For these women the recommended treatment is often modified radical mastectomy.’
      • ‘Urinary incontinence is very common, but most people do not desire or require radical treatment.’
      • ‘She continued to practise here, despite further radical surgery for a separate primary carcinoma.’
      • ‘The patient underwent preoperative chemotherapy and subsequent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy.’
      • ‘Despite this risk, radical surgery is not indicated for the treatment of this lesion.’
      • ‘More serious cancers, however, will require radical surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.’
      • ‘Delayed recognition of cancer as a result of inaccuracy or inefficiency may also lead to increases in distress and disability for the patient, in addition to the eventual need for more radical treatment.’
      • ‘Last week, one simple health message dominated the US media: radical prostate surgery for prostate cancer saves lives.’
      • ‘Options include radical prostatectomy, conformal radiotherapy or brachytherapy, hormone treatment, and active monitoring.’
      • ‘The patient in this case study underwent ablative surgery consisting of a radical hemipelvectomy carried out by an orthopaedic oncologist.’
      • ‘By the seventeenth century, more radical treatments, often chemical, came into fashion and the gentle, gradual, and individualized diet fell out of favour.’
      • ‘Such patterns of care should increase the frequency with which patients are offered treatments that alter the course of the disease, most particularly surgical resection or radical radiotherapy.’
      • ‘All the control lymph nodes were removed as part of radical surgeries for malignant disease conditions and were negative for malignancy.’
      • ‘The principal concern is that age bias will lead to the use of palliative therapies as opposed to curative treatments and radical surgical procedures in older adult patients.’
  • 2Advocating or based on thorough or complete political or social change; representing or supporting an extreme or progressive section of a political party.

    ‘a radical American activist’
    • ‘But history shows that protests are organized first by militant, radical fringe parties and then get taken over by more centrist voices as the movement grows.’
    • ‘She has been the most radical advocate of the party's adoption of an independent stance in elections.’
    • ‘Western colonies of radical workers sprang up in the 1880s and 1890s.’
    • ‘In addition, radical students espousing forms of Marxism, some combined with religious political rhetoric, joined the disaffected.’
    • ‘So we can have all sorts of radical parties in politics making change there.’
    • ‘For socialist and radical parties and movements, 1968 saw a mushrooming in their number and members.’
    • ‘The Left Bloc began by bringing together people from different traditions of the radical left in Portugal.’
    • ‘She was supported by all the left and radical parties including the NSSP as well as all the various bourgeois and petty bourgeois Tamil parties.’
    • ‘Later it emerged that they belonged to the radical left-wing organisation November 17.’
    • ‘A radical working class carried out a general strike in 1917 and provoked two states of siege.’
    • ‘His billionaire wife is remembered either as very religious or beautiful, but certainly not as a radical political activist.’
    • ‘Hard-liners formed a radical political party, more extremist than any other.’
    • ‘He's accused of supporting extremists or radical groups in other countries as well, but Colombia is an sufficient place to start.’
    • ‘Their passivity is a reflection of the lack of cohesiveness among social groups and radical parties.’
    • ‘It was an explicit invitation to the radical students to direct their criticism at the highest leaders of the Party and the State.’
    • ‘We could well have a more radical left-wing party with some trade union support while on the right the Eurosceptics might have gone and formed a new party.’
    • ‘Wales has always had strong left wing and radical political parties and leaders.’
    • ‘Born in 1856, he became a radical social reformer who preached the adage of ‘one caste, one God and one religion for all men’.’
    • ‘The more radical Jewish political activists have been involved in unions and socialism.’
    • ‘But they were captives of the extreme radical elements in their party, for whom the Green movement was not essentially a political cause but a spiritual one.’
    revolutionary, progressive, reforming, reformist, revisionist, progressivist
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    1. 2.1British historical Belonging to an extreme section of the Liberal party during the 19th century.
      • ‘He was elected as MP for Stirling Burghs in 1868, and gained a reputation as a radical Liberal.’
    2. 2.2 Characterized by independence of or departure from tradition; innovative or unorthodox.
      ‘the daring, avant-garde spirit of the music was too radical for the conservative audience’
      • ‘She calls for a radical re-examination of traditional approaches to accountability, transparency and press freedom.’
      • ‘When von Neumann proposed this architecture in 1945, it was a radical idea.’
      • ‘Road pricing is a radical solution that primarily is about securing allocative efficiency of scarce resources, namely road space.’
      • ‘This is not such a radical thought; rhythms characterize all living systems, indeed, differentiate them from the non-living.’
      • ‘Here we would like to entertain the more radical idea that the underlying laws governing those individual phenomena are themselves of statistical origin.’
      • ‘These twin notions are neither new nor radical, but are rooted in core American values.’
      • ‘For most teachers, then, doing things that make a difference would mean working in radical ways within a mainstream school.’
      • ‘Many of the widely known Chinese artists presented variations - some slight, some radical - on the type of work that made their reputation.’
      • ‘A radical agenda and innovative ideas for a second term of Labour-led government are being thrashed out by ministers and senior party figures in private this weekend.’
      • ‘But in New York, the gifted young sculptor became a sort of society vanguardist whose soigne work was rooted in radical ideas that he made palatable.’
      • ‘At the time of launch the collaboration between the news and current affairs departments was a radical approach.’
      • ‘His early 1980s TV show seemed radical at the time.’
      • ‘A radical alternative to this approach, one that would expose patients to the full price of drugs, is reference pricing.’
      • ‘First, let's mandate a radical redesign of that core user of oil, the automobile.’
      • ‘That's when the American Medical Association published a radical new recommendation - most Americans should be taking vitamins.’
      • ‘The resulting album attracted two nominations in the Radio 2 folk awards with its radical approach to traditional music.’
      • ‘Given the extent to which it is taken for granted today, it can be difficult to fully appreciate the truly innovative and radical approach Frege took to logic.’
      • ‘It is unfortunate that most people are not in a position to come into contact, let alone sympathize, with radical musical ideas.’
      • ‘We will need a fresh and radical approach capable of reaching millions, not thousands, of voters.’
      • ‘Moore's law is not concerned with radical new technologies that could have a dramatic effect.’
      unusual, irregular, unorthodox, unfamiliar, uncommon, uncustomary, unwonted, rare, out of the ordinary, atypical, singular, distinctive, individual, individualistic, free-spirited, alternative, different
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  • 3Linguistics
    Denoting or relating to the roots of a word.

    1. 3.1Music Belonging to the root of a chord.
  • 4Mathematics
    Relating to or forming the root of a number or quantity.

    • ‘The answers are thirteen over four and two plus or minus radical seven.’
  • 5Botany
    Of, or springing direct from, the root or stem base of a plant.

  • 6North American informal usually as exclamation Very good; excellent.

    ‘Okay, then. Seven o'clock. Radical!’
    excellent, wonderful, marvellous, magnificent, superb, splendid, glorious, sublime, lovely, delightful, first-class, first-rate, outstanding
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noun

  • 1A person who advocates thorough or complete political or social change, or a member of a political party or section of a party pursuing such aims.

    • ‘However politically accommodating the radicals are prepared to be, any talk of defending workers interests is enough to send the union leaders into a frenzy.’
    • ‘He was essentially a middle-class radical rather than a champion of the working-class claim to representation in parliament.’
    • ‘Throughout American history, reformers and radicals have addressed social problems through civil disobedience and non-violent resistance.’
    • ‘The advisors also discover that McKeene was a political radical in her youth.’
    • ‘Miller was neither a social radical nor a pioneer of scientific thought.’
    • ‘Hidden within the morally outraged and civilly disobedient radical, in other words, was the soul of a wronged decision theorist.’
    • ‘I still remember the confusion I felt the day that a female member of the Dartmouth SDS told me that the only campus radical I considered cool was a male chauvinist.’
    • ‘Throughout our nation's history, radicals and reformers have viewed their movements as profoundly patriotic.’
    • ‘The party has not tried to disguise its new deregulatory approach, which is causing unease among party radicals and old-style social democrats.’
    • ‘Chao was surrounded by the ideas of political radicals and heard songs of protest sung beneath a portrait of Che Guevara.’
    • ‘The parliamentary Greens went along with the radicals because they knew if they didn't the radicals would splinter the party.’
    • ‘A subsequent case failed, thanks largely to protests by French political radicals.’
    • ‘Indeed not every eighteenth-century American supported slavery, and some political radicals were extremely critical of the practice.’
    • ‘He attributed the rise of radicals more to social tensions that followed the 1998 economic and political crisis.’
    • ‘Rohm was not really a social or political radical.’
    • ‘It was used to crack down on radicals and political dissenters after anarchists exploded a bomb outside the home of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer in 1919.’
    • ‘I try to be a radical in political and social ways, but I'm a terrible conservative when it comes to technology.’
    • ‘Because she's a radical, in the true sense: striking at the root.’
    • ‘It was founded by radicals who had been members of the Socialist Workers Party or other political tendencies that had left that organization.’
    • ‘The political radicals who ran the French Revolution from 1793 abolished the concept of weeks altogether.’
    revolutionary, progressive, reformer, revisionist
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  • 2Chemistry
    A group of atoms behaving as a unit in a number of compounds.

    See also free radical
    • ‘Examples of compounds or groups that accept anions include the nitrate and hydroxide radicals.’
    • ‘Subsequent oxidation-reduction reactions can also produce superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals.’
    • ‘Marcel Nicolet resolved some of this discrepancy by showing how reactive molecular fragments called radicals convert ozone molecules back into O 2.’
    • ‘The hydroxyl radical is very damaging and can react with many substances.’
    • ‘The superoxide anion radical is capable of causing as much cellular damage as singlet oxygen.’
  • 3The root or base form of a word.

    • ‘The word can refer to a geminate verb, i.e., a triliteral verb where the second and third radicals are the same - also called mediae geminatae.’
    1. 3.1 Any of the basic set of approximately 214 Chinese characters constituting semantically or functionally significant elements in the composition of other characters and used as a means of classifying characters in dictionaries.
      • ‘It is for this reason also, that the character xin does not contain the radical for ‘body part’, and is the only zang which does not.’
      • ‘So you see, by knowing the radicals and the 6 ways of forming Chinese characters, one can pretty much guess the meaning and sound of Chinese characters.’
      • ‘By learning the function of radicals of Chinese characters, students can learn new characters by groups and strings.’
      • ‘Sho is an ideograph that is comprised of two radicals meaning ‘cloth’ and ‘knife’.’
      • ‘Finally, the Lexical Decision test is a measure of children's right-left spatial reversals of Chinese radicals.’
      • ‘There are about 200 radicals representing basic subjects.’
  • 4Mathematics
    A quantity forming or expressed as the root of another.

    • ‘In 1845 Wantzel, continuing his researches into equations, gave a new proof of the impossibility of solving all algebraic equations by radicals.’
    • ‘When the exponent is a prime number, I say that its radical cannot be divisible by any other prime except those that are greater by one than a multiple of double the exponent.’
    • ‘In high school we are taught the quadratic formula which provides the roots of any quadratic equation in terms of radicals involving the coefficients of the equation.’
    • ‘The paper also shows that if n is a prime less than 10 the equation x n - 1 = 0 can be solved in radicals.’
    • ‘From its true emergence, algebra can be seen as a theory of equations solved by means of radicals, and of algebraic calculations on related expressions.’
    1. 4.1 A radical sign.

Origin

Late Middle English (in the senses ‘forming the root’ and ‘inherent’): from late Latin radicalis, from Latin radix, radic- ‘root’.

Pronunciation

radical

/ˈradɪk(ə)l/