One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
Any of a number of subatomic particles carrying a fractional electric charge, postulated as building blocks of the hadrons. Quarks have not been directly observed but theoretical predictions based on their existence have been confirmed experimentally.
- ‘Now nuclear physicists in Japan, Russia and the US have discovered a particle that contains two up quarks, two down quarks and a strange antiquark.’
- ‘This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up.’
- ‘In general, baryons consist of three quarks and mesons of one quark and its corresponding antiquark.’
- ‘The strong force is the one that is dominant in the atomic nucleus, acting between the quarks inside the proton and the neutron.’
- ‘At low temperatures, quarks are confined in hadrons, whereas at higher temperatures they form a quark-gluon plasma.’
- ‘Also, neutrons and protons are made up of tinier particles called quarks.’
- ‘As far as we can tell, quarks, like electrons, are point particles - they don't have any size at all.’
- ‘However, we find it difficult to describe the way that quarks and gluons bind together to form hadrons.’
- ‘This process results in two jets of hadronic particles as the quarks form hadrons.’
- ‘The protons and neutrons in the nucleus are made of elementary particles called quarks.’
- ‘Everyday matter is composed of just three types of particles: up quarks, down quarks and electrons.’
- ‘We know this must have happened, because we observe more quarks than antiquarks today.’
- ‘Yet experiments indicated that quarks within protons were only loosely bound together.’
- ‘The resulting theory would be able to describe the behavior of the universe, from quarks and atoms to entire galaxies.’
- ‘In the course of the 20th century, science successively named electrons, protons, neutrons, and quarks.’
- ‘It describes a world in which electrons, quarks and the like are point particles that move in a manner dictated by the wavefunction.’
- ‘That process would briefly liberate the quarks and gluons that make up protons and neutrons.’
- ‘Research into the atom's nucleus has uncovered a variety of subatomic particles, including quarks and gluons.’
- ‘Yet they implied the existence of quarks, which seem to be as real as any other objects that we take seriously.’
- ‘The scalar superpartners of quarks and electrons are called squarks and selectrons.’
1960s: a word invented by Murray Gell-Man (see Gell-Mann, Murray). Originally quork, the term was changed by association with the line ‘Three quarks for Muster Mark’ in Joyce's Finnegans Wake (1939).
A type of low-fat curd cheese.
- ‘The only way to make it last is to turn it into cheese, yoghurt or quark.’
- ‘To serve, spoon some dill and quark sauce on a plate.’
- ‘Fromage frais and quark will be the only other sector to enjoy a stronger performance than the market average over the forecast period.’
- ‘Instead of cream, buy a tub of fat-free quark and loosen it with some milk to give it a silky smooth texture just like thick pouring cream.’
- ‘I've never tried quark skimmed milk soft cheese before; won't be trying it again in a hurry.’
- ‘In the morning, I eat oatmeal with egg whites and low-fat quark [a soft creamy cheese popular in Europe].’
- ‘Plain or flavored yogurt, quark, cottage cheese, beaten mascarpone or ricotta could be substituted for the fromage blanc.’
- ‘The strong points in the German cheese list are hand cheeses, of which they have many varieties, including the multiple forms of quark, by far the most popular cheese in Germany.’
1930s: from German Quark ‘curd, curds’.
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