Definition of projection in English:



  • 1An estimate or forecast of a future situation based on a study of present trends.

    ‘plans based on projections of slow but positive growth’
    [mass noun] ‘population projection is essential for planning’
    • ‘The trustees present three projections, based on pessimistic, middle-of-the-road and optimistic economic assumptions, respectively.’
    • ‘Growth projections indicate the center could expand to 200,000 square feet by 2007 and create 30 more jobs.’
    • ‘NASA's cost estimates, based on projections that each shuttle would fly at least 100 times, were obviously a key selling point for the shuttle.’
    • ‘The study warns, however, that these positive projections are based upon the retention of a fairly stable oil price.’
    • ‘Demographic projections suggest rapid future growth of this ethnic group, due to immigration.’
    • ‘User fee rates will be based on meeting specific revenue projections.’
    • ‘Again, budget projections based on historical economic trends would have been even worse than the forecasts that were actually used.’
    • ‘By definition, projections make assumptions based on past behavior, and future behavior may or may not follow the same patterns.’
    • ‘Small declines in the mortality rate today compound and create very large population increases in projections for the future.’
    • ‘Ditton bases his projections on demographic trends already in play.’
    • ‘Based on projections of a future increase in tourist arrivals made by the provincial government, the idea to develop an integrated resort was launched.’
    • ‘These projections are based on assumptions about fertility and life expectancy as both these measures are independent of the age structure of the population.’
    • ‘On the second sowing date, simulated yields using these optimistic projections exceeded the yields using the current weather data.’
    • ‘When the museum opened in June last year financial projections were based on 200,000 paying customers a year.’
    • ‘While most experts consider the problem severe, others say the gloomy forecasts are based on overly conservative projections of economic growth.’
    • ‘The government is counting on rising exports to meet its 3.68 percent economic growth projection for this year.’
    • ‘With the current sales projections, I am sure we both agree there is a need to reduce costs.’
    • ‘Many companies took the knife to their cost base early in the downturn and many have revisited their cost base as revenue projections became increasingly pessimistic.’
    • ‘Original financial projections were based on 444 visitors a day.’
    • ‘The reported strong sales in the opening week have led the paper's promoters to revise original sales projections upwards.’
    estimate, forecast, prediction, calculation, prognosis, prognostication, reckoning, expectation
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  • 2[mass noun] The presentation of an image on a surface, especially a cinema screen.

    ‘quality illustrations for overhead projection’
    • ‘I started to use slide projection and projected images more generally.’
    • ‘Since mid 1999, digital projection of major films in newly designated digital cinemas has become a widely discussed option.’
    • ‘What actually made you get into cinema projection?’
    • ‘I don't think they had any knowledge of image projection from mirrors onto a screen in the 15th century.’
    • ‘Here montage and projection take place simultaneously.’
    • ‘Traditionally used in medical applications, the xenon lamp has evolved into a key component for digital projection for home cinema applications.’
    • ‘Digital projection is the only hope for revival cinema in this country, but revival houses are the last places that can afford new projectors.’
    • ‘By using slide projection on location, fragments of the past were introduced into the visual field of the present.’
    • ‘The studio supervisors have incorporated digital images onto film stock for celluloid projection in conventional theatres around the world.’
    • ‘However, one advantage of digital projection is that cinemas can now be used to show all manner of live programming on the screen as well as movies.’
    • ‘The set featured a large screen television and big screen projection with the questions appearing on the bottom half for all to see.’
    • ‘Modern technology has given us exciting new forms of projection and screens that can be seen in well-lighted sanctuaries.’
    1. 2.1[count noun]An image projected on a surface.
      ‘the band use stage projections featuring moon shots’
      • ‘The story is told through acting, song, dance and drama, with visual projections, choirs, bands and performance artists all adding to the madness.’
      • ‘Celebration and friendship washed over the brassy clutter of drawings, video projections, raw wood structures, handmade coins and other stuff.’
      • ‘This area will feature slide projections and visuals by Andrew Clarke.’
      • ‘To view the piece one must walk through a narrow door and in between the two rear-screen projections so that the images seem to deflect off of you in both directions.’
      • ‘Performances will merge live acting with a digital video projection and a soundtrack.’
      • ‘Another installation is a video projection which shows a rear-view mirror on a car driving on a mountain road.’
      • ‘‘We want a device that you can download films to, press a button and see a huge screen projection,’ said Adrian Cable, director of the company.’
      • ‘I think that was really important to why I started to use projected images and slide projections.’
      • ‘What distinguishes the troupe's zesty choreography is its travelogue context, with background projections of maps, photos and colourful images of Caracas, the city that gave birth to salsa.’
      • ‘It also features video and sound projections as well as live music on stage.’
      • ‘Her intermedia spaces stage the spectacle through multiscreen projections of images of nature.’
      • ‘He has both the voice and look of Meatloaf himself - and is backed by an incredible stage set, video projections and a superb band.’
      • ‘Yes, there is a symbiotic relationship between two projections or two images.’
      • ‘In the course of the performance, projections above the stage suggested a nightscape of starry fields and woods reflected in still water.’
      • ‘But the big, blurred picture projections lack the specificity an original photograph and caption give.’
      • ‘Wood panels create virtual rock walls to simulate the craggy cliffs of the lake, and video projections provide dynamic images of seasonal changes.’
      • ‘Their black and white poster-size prints use video projections as light sources, providing time-elapsed post-exposures of the images.’
      • ‘Here you can see the world's first cinema film projection and first colour photographs.’
      • ‘A slide show projection of earlier work is also being presented.’
      • ‘Since then she has made conceptual photographs, projections, installations, drawings and more.’
    2. 2.2The ability to make a sound heard at a distance.
      ‘I taught him voice projection’
      • ‘This model delivers a resonant tone that provides players the ability to create unique, textured, open sounds with good projection.’
      • ‘There are many sections where voicing and melodic projection will be a concern.’
      • ‘Her sensitive and expressive playing lacked colour and projection in the live concert situation.’
      • ‘Here projection indeed was far less effective than it might have been in this generous acoustic, and one longed to hear the colours and cohesive blends of the chorus more forthrightly.’
      • ‘Moscow pianists tended towards a muscular clarity and strong willed emphasis on power and projection.’
      • ‘These venues were marked by poor projection of both sound and visual.’
      • ‘It is impressive how a cast made up entirely of New College students achieves such perfect clarity of voice projection.’
      • ‘In this unconventional format you don't need much voice projection, with the actors only a short distance from the audience.’
      • ‘His voice and vocal projection are so vivid that whilst he is singing he makes you forget all other performers of the role.’
      • ‘The melody often is divided between the hands and sometimes involves projection from an interior location.’
      • ‘Modern-day technology with improved sound projection was seriously getting on my nerves.’
      • ‘Mewes' audio is fine of course, because almost all human beings understand the principles of basic voice projection.’
      • ‘Overhead, a canopy of perforated metal panels extends out toward the first few rows of seats, helping with sound projection.’
      • ‘As well as giving students tips on voice projection, the courses also teach the importance of positive body language and stage presence.’
      • ‘What depresses me more is that for our young actors, skills like speaking verse properly and voice projection are no longer a priority.’
      • ‘On occasion, Janzen's quest for projection moved his voice too far into his chest, pinching the sound; however, he is clearly a talented vocalist.’
      • ‘Further, the detail and projection of the bass part at the conclusion is quite unique and chilling.’
      • ‘The cast put in a sound ensemble effort, with excellent voice projection and an obvious understanding of the text.’
      • ‘The participants will be taught phonetics, diction, voice projection, and drama techniques.’
      • ‘An artist of this calibre urgently needs a better instrument to allow greater projection of sound into a hall.’
  • 3[mass noun] The presentation or promotion of someone or something in a particular way.

    ‘the legal profession's projection of an image of altruism’
    • ‘What others say and do is a projection of their reality and perception, not yours.’
    • ‘Ideas, any ideas, all ideas, are only a projection of reality, not the other way around.’
    1. 3.1[count noun]A mental image viewed as reality.
      ‘monsters can be understood as mental projections of mankind's fears’
      • ‘When we begin to have some sense of the relation between subject and object, we may begin to see that it is our own mental projections that are reflected back into our mind.’
      • ‘Psychoanalyst Carl Jung said that flying saucer reports in reality and fiction reflected a psychological projection of nuclear fears.’
      • ‘Even that image had been a projection of some earthly thing into her make-believe kingdom.’
      • ‘Ethical propositions are properly seen as projections of our concerns and attitudes, rather than as references to some property of the world.’
      • ‘Of course, the fact that they were there only as projections of her own imagination took a little of the meaning out of that approval.’
      • ‘This ‘enemy’ is, of course, not really the ‘other,’ but more exactly a projection dependent on our view of ourselves.’
      • ‘Acknowledging that phenomena are mental projections, we can achieve greater renunciation for there really is no point in getting attached to a situation that is not what it seems to be.’
    2. 3.2The unconscious transfer of one's desires or emotions to another person.
      ‘we protect the self by a number of defence mechanisms, including repression and projection’
      • ‘They operate with so much psychological projection that they would make a great case for a person to use to study for a doctoral thesis!’
      • ‘The principle of projection is well-established in psychology.’
      • ‘A person who during childhood has learnt to reject parts of him/herself is likely to use the psychological defence mechanism of projection in adulthood.’
      • ‘It is a radical example of what psychologists would call projection.’
      • ‘I don't think I've seen a clearer example of the psychological phenomena known as projection in my life.’
      • ‘One might think of this as illustrating the defences of splitting, projection and rationalization.’
      • ‘When this process, which entails the mechanisms of projection and identification, functions smoothly, depressive feelings can be accepted and worked with.’
      • ‘I believe psychologists would call this projection.’
      • ‘Among other things, the position of the spectators in the cinema is blatantly one of repression of their exhibitionism and projection of the repressed desire onto the performer.’
      • ‘It was found that both denial and projection of blame were not significantly different among the three groups.’
      • ‘Bonding with a partner is more than just a matter of unconscious projection.’
      • ‘This is essentially the biological cycle of ingestion and elimination, becoming the psychological cycle of introjection and projection.’
      • ‘It is this kind of unconscious projection that determines our behavior, especially in personal relationships.’
      • ‘It is not hard to see here the psychological phenomenon of projection: the pot calling the kettle black.’
  • 4A thing that extends outwards from something else.

    ‘the chipboard covered all the sharp projections’
    • ‘A ventral projection of the jugal extends over the lateral surface of the maxilla.’
    • ‘Microblasting technology is used to remove very fine burrs so that there are no sharp projections on the outside edge of the tube tip.’
    • ‘Each arm can also include a projection that extends at least partially into a wall opening.’
    • ‘Many times, he hit his head on sharp projections of rock from the low, stone ceiling that nearly made him black out again.’
    • ‘Instead, an enlarged supratemporal intervenes and forms a sharp projection at the corner of the skull table.’
    • ‘Tubulovillous polyps are pedunculated, with villous projections extending from the free ends.’
    • ‘The tongue has many small projections making the surface very markedly ridged.’
    • ‘The tumor may have fingerlike projections, which extend into adjacent renal parenchyma.’
    • ‘The active contacts may include several sheetlike metallic projections extending inwardly around a hole in the sheetlike element, on a first major surface of the sheetlike element.’
    • ‘They differ, however, in having a flat rather than a concave pseudointerarea, and in having a tubular projection extending from larval shell.’
    • ‘Their projections possess both a sharp edge and piercing point.’
    • ‘The jugular process is enlarged and the tympanic projection is extended anteriorly from the ventral surface of the tympanic bulla.’
    protuberance, protrusion, sticking-out bit, overhang, ledge, shelf, ridge, prominence, spur, outcrop, outgrowth, jut, bulge, jag, snag
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  • 5Geometry
    [mass noun] The action of projecting a figure.

  • 6[mass noun] The representation on a plane surface of part of the surface of the earth or a celestial sphere.

    • ‘Different three-dimensional objects, oriented appropriately, have the same two-dimensional plane projection.’
    • ‘Finally, the plane projection of the map doesn't quite work.’
    • ‘The Commander hit a switch on his podium and a holographic projection of Earth's moon, Luna, was generated in front of the Commander's podium.’
    • ‘The key formal innovation of Christmas on Earth is its superimposed projection in unequal sizes, a format that she originated.’
    1. 6.1[count noun]A method for representing part of the surface of the earth or a celestial sphere on a plane surface.
      ‘the use of different map projections’
      • ‘He devoted himself to problems of navigation as well as to producing maps and map projections.’
      • ‘Once this is performed, intelligent resamplers traverse the three-dimensional model to combine the pixels into the desired map projection and scale.’
      • ‘He worked on geodesy but became interested in conformal map projections where he invented a quincuncial map projection using elliptic functions.’
      • ‘It'd be funny if, after centuries of map projections, the world really did turn out to be flat because of the mountain and valley wrinkles.’
      • ‘During this period he began to perfect a new map projection for which he is best remembered.’
      • ‘The information was gradually entered into a computer system, which allowed map projections of various kinds of crime to be superimposed on each other.’
      • ‘What is surprising is that someone discovered the map projection to do it.’
      • ‘Its sophisticated treatment of spherical trigonometry allowed cartographers to construct terrestrial globes and map projections that took into account the curvature of the earth's surface.’
      • ‘Cosmographia provided an introduction to astronomy, geography, cartography, surveying, navigation, weather and climate, the shape of the earth, map projections, and mathematical instruments.’
      • ‘One which has survived is his Cartography which is a work on map projections.’


Mid 16th century (in projection): from Latin projectio(n-), from proicere throw forth (see project).