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An investigation of attitude changes using a constant set of people and comparing each individual's opinions at different times.
- ‘In several daily, time-series panel studies, researchers have observed that day-to-day changes in particulate air pollution are associated with small changes in measures of lung function.’
- ‘Participants were derived from a three-wave panel study, which began in 1982 with a random survey of 5-year-olds in the Ottawa-Carleton region of Ontario, Canada.’
- ‘In this paper we present the findings of a longitudinal panel study designed to assess the impact of the hospital amalgamation on health-care workers.’
- ‘Furthermore, environmental exposures do not involve nonphysiologic instillation, which limits the comparison of instillation studies with panel studies.’
- ‘It is common to distinguish two types of longitudinal design: the panel study and the cohort study.’
- ‘Moreover, results of a large-scale panel study revealed that coping strategies have stronger impacts in the marital domain as compared with the occupational or household economic realm.’
- ‘Data were obtained from the second wave of a Dutch nationwide panel study.’
- ‘The gold standard in life-course research is the longitudinal panel study in which a representative group of persons is repeatedly interviewed at regular intervals.’
- ‘Our study also had shortcomings that are shared by most panel studies, such as the possibility of incorrect data recording by study participants.’
- ‘The panel study design includes a pre- and post-test quasi-experiment and relies on longitudinal data and within-firm variation to assess the effects of process management on innovation.’
- ‘Two panel studies of ethanol production by the US Department of Energy also reported a negative energy return.’
- ‘Some measures available in the data set also limited the analyses, a common and perhaps forgivable limitation of longterm national panel studies.’
- ‘The panel study was originally conducted to evaluate Project ALERT, a drug prevention program for middle school children.’
- ‘A group of 59 asthmatic residents, from 46 households in East Moline, Illinois, and nearby communities, were recruited for participation in a panel study conducted from April through October 1994.’
- ‘The Chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives, James Sensenbrenner, seconded the Chief Justice's move to initiate the Breyer panel study.’
- ‘The monomer solution was used in the panel study, although both the monomer and dimer were initially considered.’
- ‘Clearly, this identification method is vital for a panel study.’
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