Definition of nitrate in English:



  • A salt or ester of nitric acid, containing the anion NO3− or the group —NO3.

    ‘preserved meat and vegetables contain nitrates’
    [mass noun] ‘fish-fry populations are damaged by nitrate’
    • ‘Nitric oxide, nitrates, and sulfa-containing drugs are the most frequent precipitants of clinically important methemoglobinemia.’
    • ‘By depositing proteins as monolayers onto gold colloids, the aim will be to develop biosensors for nitrate and nitric oxide with detection capabilities approaching those of natural bacterial cells.’
    • ‘It occurs in all kinds of minerals, such as oxides, carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates.’
    • ‘Many nitrates are ionic in nature, but heavy metal nitrates and anhydrous nitrates have covalently bonded nitrate groups.’
    • ‘For instance, the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere is highly complex with a number of variables affecting the nitrate and nitric acid generation that can end up in the ice.’


[WITH OBJECT]Chemistry
  • Treat (a substance) with nitric acid, especially so as to introduce nitro groups.

    ‘nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’
    ‘a powerful nitrating agent’
    • ‘The interaction between nitrogen oxides and PAHs leads to formation of nitrated PAHs, which are in turn even more potent carcinogens.’
    • ‘Further complicating this issue are data showing that nitration of SP-A limits its effectiveness, and nitrated proteins are increased markedly in BAL fluid from lung allograft recipients.’
    • ‘Pollutants in diesel exhausts exist as particles or gas phase compounds and the contribution of nitrated, oxygenated and alkylated PAHs to the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity has been recognized.’
    • ‘Whole lung SOD3 enzymatic activity was unchanged despite the increased protein, and further examination revealed the protein to be strongly nitrated.’
    • ‘It is important to note that nitrated proteins are not the same as free radicals.’
    • ‘In diesel exhaust they have very rich oxides of nitrogen, and what that does is it nitrates the PAHs, which makes them more toxic than the ones that have come out of motor vehicle exhausts.’
    • ‘Biodiesel reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulates.’
    • ‘When nitrobenzene is nitrated with nitric and sulfuric acids, for example, 93 percent of the substituted groups end up at meta positions.’
    • ‘The first plastic, celluloid, was synthesized from nitrated cotton fiber and camphor in 1869, to make a cheaper substitute for ivory billiard balls.’
    • ‘Cigarette smoking is associated with lung recruitment and activation of neutrophils that produce increased capabilities for the generation of nitrated protein.’
    • ‘Thus NO metabolized to nitrosothiols and to nitrated amino acids was not detected.’
    • ‘For example, a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids will nitrate benzene.’
    • ‘Additionally, nitrated SP-A may not associate with lipids, lipid components may prevent SP-A nitration, or nitrated SP-A may have been lost during preparation of samples for subsequent assay.’


Late 18th century: from French (see nitre, -ate).