Definition of Manchu in English:



  • 1A member of a people originally living in Manchuria, who formed the last imperial dynasty of China (1644–1912).

    • ‘That Huang, a Han Chinese, resented being ruled by a dynasty of Manchus no doubt had something to do with this opinion, as did his desire to strengthen the position of scholar-officials like himself.’
    • ‘The Qing dynasty was founded by Manchus, who conquered China in the 1640s.’
    • ‘The Manchus, who originated in Manchuria, had seized power in China in 1644 and established the Qing dynasty, which ruled until 1911.’
    • ‘Korea suffered more attacks in 1627 and 1636, this time at the hands of the Manchus, who later conquered China.’
    • ‘Manchuria had been artificially closed to immigration for almost three centuries after the nomadic Manchus had conquered China in 1644.’
    • ‘In the 18th century, the Manchus further encouraged Lamaism since they preferred Mongol males to become monks rather than warriors.’
    • ‘These were brought to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan in the 1880s by Muslim Chinese and Uighurs fleeing the collapse of their revolt against the Manchus.’
    • ‘The Eastern Qing Tombs is the first imperial graveyard built during the Qing Dynasty after the Manchus crossed the Great Wall and entered Beijing.’
    • ‘The Mongol rulers of Outer Mongolia enjoyed considerable autonomy under the Manchus, and all Chinese claims to Outer Mongolia following the establishment of the republic have rested on this oath.’
    • ‘Once the Manchus were toppled, he saw his mission as uniting China under one military force, ending warlordism, and resisting the Japanese occupation of Chinese territory.’
    • ‘However, the Tibetans, Mongols, Manchus, Koreans, and Uighur have written literature as well.’
    • ‘While the Manchus adopted many aspects of Chinese life, they remained segregated from them, intermarriage with Chinese was forbidden, and they had separate quarters in all Chinese cities.’
    • ‘Meanwhile, the Manchus, ancient enemies of the Mongols, established the Qing dynasty.’
    • ‘The Qing dynasty was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last native Chinese regime, by the Manchus, a central Asian people who invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century.’
    • ‘The European force, now supported by the Manchus, then took its revenge on the Boxers.’
    • ‘The Manchus conquered China and established an imperial dynasty which ruled between 1644 and 1911.’
    • ‘Even though the Manchus tried very hard to learn the culture and adapt themselves to the Chinese ways, native Chinese still regarded them as barbarians.’
    • ‘During the Ming dynasty dragon robes were used as gifts to dignitaries and bribes to ward off northern barbarians like the Manchus.’
    • ‘Early in the 17th century the Manchus came in from the north, establishing relations between Korea and the Qing Dynasty.’
    • ‘When the Manchus took control of China in 1644, the wall ceased to have military significance.’
  • 2mass noun The Tungusic language of the Manchus, still spoken by a few thousand people in Xinjiang, though most Manchus now speak Chinese.

    • ‘It is part of the diverse Uralic-Altaic language family, which spread with the ancient Mongol Empire and also contains Korean, Manchu, Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian.’
    • ‘The job, translating the Bible into Manchu, would take him to St Petersburg for two years.’
    • ‘He was a custodian of literature, in Manchu, Mongolian, Chinese, Tibetan and the Uigur language of Turkestan.’
    • ‘Since 1855 Wo Ren had tutored his elder brother, who in turn was to become tutor in Manchu to the Emperor and to pass the extreme conservatism of Wo Ren to his own sons.’


  • Relating to the Manchu people or their language.

    • ‘The most significant moment in the entire history of the Wall came one spring morning in 1644 when Manchu horsemen swept through the undefended First Gate here at Shanhaiguan, sealing the downfall of the Ming Dynasty.’
    • ‘She's the spitting image of a Manchu princess - no, warrior.’
    • ‘A large portion of Manchu mythology is about ancestors.’
    • ‘Ming generals, who had been dispatched to the northern frontier to check growing Manchu incursions, defected to the invaders.’
    • ‘Other items include Manchu hats, embroidered purses, jewelry, hair ornaments, silk chamber hangings, and collars and emblems for dragon robes.’
    • ‘The Manchu government recognised his bravery and awarded him the Order of the Golden Dragon Third Class - a magnificent medal which I keep to this day.’
    • ‘Since the Manchus ruled the Middle Kingdom in the 17th century, Manchu people have been mixed up with the Han people and so there is really blurry line between the Manchu cuisine and most other northern cuisines.’
    • ‘In addition, they were encouraged to use the Manchu language, rather than Chinese.’
    • ‘The Manchu women wore normally a one-piece dress which, likewise, came to be called ‘qipao’ or ‘banner dress.’’
    • ‘As an ‘international concession’ as well as treaty port, its special privileges created an enclave exempt from Manchu authority.’
    • ‘Could they have been warnings against over-indulgence and over-refinement that might weaken Manchu culture?’
    • ‘He asked all the Hans to follow Manchu traditions, shaving their hair from the front of the head and wearing a thick plait at the back.’
    • ‘The shortcomings of Sun and his Nationalist Party were rapidly exposed following the 1911 revolution that brought the collapse of the Manchu empire.’
    • ‘A great dissatisfaction towards the weak Manchu government was shown in reports published during the time, as well as sympathy for the plight of the locals.’
    • ‘Various scholars found signs of just that in the late Ming and early Qing; the failure of these sprouts to blossom fully were then blamed on either Manchu or British intervention from outside.’
    • ‘Common court dress, for both men and women, became the Manchu robe, which could cover multiple layers in the winter or be left loose in the summer.’
    • ‘Since Shenyang was an early capital of the Manchu people, many other ancient sites scattered about the city, such as towers, temples and small palaces, tell the old stories of this nationality.’
    • ‘And most important as far as future friendship was concerned, was Salisbury's response when Sun Yat-sen was kidnapped by Manchu agents in London in 1896.’
    • ‘It is set during the early Qing Dynasty, and Gordon Liu plays a man on the run after murderous Manchu oppressors kill his family.’
    • ‘The princes of northern Mongolia submitted to Manchu rule in 1691.’


The name in Manchu, literally ‘pure’.