Definition of longitudinal in English:

longitudinal

Pronunciation /ˌlɒŋɡɪˈtjuːdɪn(ə)l//ˌlɒn(d)ʒɪˈtjuːdɪn(ə)l/

adjective

  • 1Running lengthwise rather than across.

    ‘longitudinal muscles’
    ‘longitudinal stripes’
    • ‘It also includes longitudinal and circular muscle fibers.’
    • ‘During the day, it has three dark longitudinal stripes that run the length of the body.’
    • ‘Nematodes move by contraction of the longitudinal muscles.’
    • ‘The cuticle of the anterior margin of each segment is thickened towards the interior of the animal in order to form a pachycyclus for the attachment of longitudinal muscles.’
    • ‘Campylostoma exhibits rather rectilinear lateral longitudinal ridges whereas those of Corazzatocarcinus n. gen. are sinuous.’
    • ‘In this work, seizures were monitored by dorsal longitudinal muscle activity.’
    • ‘The opening of the pylorus after it has contracted may represent, in part, the dilating effect of the contraction of the longitudinal muscle layer of the stomach.’
    • ‘The dorsal longitudinal muscles (indicated by arrowhead) are clearly visible.’
    • ‘Since he had a differentiated ectoderm separate from the gut, and also had a longitudinal layer of muscle and bilateral symmetry, he probably had some degree of motility.’
    • ‘This motion must represent contraction of both the outer longitudinal muscle layer and the powerful longitudinal muscle of the mucosa.’
    • ‘Interadambulacral contact facets lie beneath the ambulacral and overlie tissue depressions for the longitudinal muscles that lower the arm.’
    • ‘This stretch is made possible by the presence of nitrergic inhibitory nerves, excited in a swallow, in both longitudinal muscle layers within this short segment.’
    • ‘The upper one-third of the esophagus is striated muscle, and the remainder contains inner circular layers and outer longitudinal layers of muscle.’
    • ‘In Drosophila, the presumptive central nervous system is specified at an early stage of embryonic development as two longitudinal stripes of cells, just dorsal to the ventral mesoderm.’
    • ‘The body of the esophagus begins at the lower edge of the cricopharyngeus muscle and contains two layers of muscle, the outer longitudinal and the inner circular.’
    • ‘Reed's figures show surface ornament, but this consists of longitudinal rather than transverse elements.’
    • ‘This rendering shows a sharp contrast between the tongue's core, comprised of the vertical and transverse muscles, and its sheath of longitudinal muscles.’
    • ‘During walking, the epaxial muscles, organized into longitudinal tracts, function to stabilize the vertebral column.’
    • ‘Flower coloration is mostly tan, with some external dark brown longitudinal stripes on the sepals and lateral petals.’
    • ‘The fibers of this thick muscle stratum all lie in the direction of the axis of the esophagus, making it, in effect, a second, strong, longitudinal muscle layer.’
  • 2Relating to longitude; measured from east to west.

    ‘longitudinal positions’
    • ‘Accurate time, which enabled seamen to establish their longitudinal position, was among the preconditions for safe and regular passage to Australia.’
    • ‘Official maps of Taiwan currently include only approximate data on the islands' surface area and topography, as well as inexact data on their latitudinal and longitudinal position.’
  • 3(of research or data) involving information about an individual or group gathered over a long period of time.

    ‘a longitudinal study of ten patients’
    • ‘This result is a particular problem for rating scales, which tend to be cross sectional, rather than longitudinal, in character.’
    • ‘The religious orders study is a longitudinal observation of Alzheimer's disease in older members of the Catholic clergy.’
    • ‘Last, it is important to note that the effect sizes for the longitudinal analyses in this study were in the small-to-medium range.’
    • ‘The longitudinal analyses in this study were based on the responses of these 150 students.’
    • ‘The timing of these variables may be particularly critical and need to be studied further in longitudinal investigations.’
    • ‘Dormann and Zapf found only 10 studies that investigated work-related social support using a longitudinal research design.’
    • ‘The subjects for this study were participating in a longitudinal research project, the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development.’
    • ‘Additional prospective, longitudinal research is needed to further elucidate the experiences and outcomes associated with lung transplantation.’
    • ‘Beyond the four limitations mentioned above, this study constitutes an interesting base for further longitudinal researches.’
    • ‘In quantitative research, unless the research is longitudinal in character, the person will be interviewed on one occasion only.’
    • ‘Morgan reviewed extensive longitudinal studies and other research and found, to the chagrin of adoption opponents, that outcomes for adopted children are good.’
    • ‘First, the study relied on cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data.’
    • ‘Such studies require longitudinal measurement of individual behavior from adolescence through young adulthood.’
    • ‘Four hundred male and female New Zealand police officers were invited to participate in a longitudinal research project, involving the completion of two questionnaire surveys.’
    • ‘Knowledge of causal risk factors thus relies heavily on the results of experimental trials as opposed to even the most elegant observational, longitudinal research.’
    • ‘A fruitful research design for intensified studies could be to do longitudinal studies with the individuals as the focus.’
    • ‘Further longitudinal research is clearly needed to clarify the potential role of early proactive aggression in the prediction of subsequent partner violence.’
    • ‘Since there are longitudinal variations in muscle activity in most fish species, data from the anterior and posterior regions of the fish must be considered separately.’
    • ‘It might be argued that these reflections are somewhat risky, because the data from which the authors derive their findings are cross-sectional in research design terms rather than longitudinal.’
    • ‘Future longitudinal research can use family of origin retrospective reports over time to see if they change substantially.’

Pronunciation

longitudinal

/ˌlɒŋɡɪˈtjuːdɪn(ə)l//ˌlɒn(d)ʒɪˈtjuːdɪn(ə)l/