Modifying the force or speed of contraction of muscles:‘a drug having a positive inotropic effect on the heart’
- ‘It has therapeutic use in congestive heart failure and edema, having a positive inotropic effect on cardiac muscle.’
- ‘The authors attribute the mechanism of these findings to the neurohormonal benefits of digoxin at lower concentrations, as opposed to the harmful inotropic effects that occur at higher dosages.’
- ‘It seems that the capability for carefully manipulating and combining agents for use in both inotropic and vasodilator actions has improved our ability to manage previously refractory patients.’
- ‘Key exclusion criteria were acute illness requiring prolonged hospitalization and use of an intravenous positive inotropic agent or a vasodilator within four days of randomization.’
- ‘A direct positive inotropic effect and an increase in the refractory period also have been postulated as possible antiarrhythmia mechanisms of spironolactone.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.