Definition of horizontal in English:



  • 1Parallel to the plane of the horizon; at right angles to the vertical.

    ‘a horizontal line’
    • ‘First, we drew reference lines with a pencil: vertical and horizontal lines that intersected at the center of the circular face.’
    • ‘But it's not just the high resolution that makes this screen a good one, it's also evenly lit across the whole surface and the viewing angle is very wide in both the vertical and horizontal planes.’
    • ‘Mondrian's style of painting involved the use of strictly horizontal or vertical black lines to create a grid of rectangles, some of which were filled in with black or white, or vivid red, blue or yellow.’
    • ‘You will actually start moving in water in a horizontal direction.’
    • ‘The venous outflow was then directed through a narrow horizontal tube that allowed observation of individual drops of fluid at low flow.’
    • ‘A series of these scans in the horizontal and longitudinal direction can be used to compose a grid.’
    • ‘Observers made their responses by pressing one of two keys on the computer keyboard, labelled with a vertical or horizontal line.’
    • ‘We see vertical and horizontal lines, they stand out, because receptors in the eyes are set to perceive them.’
    • ‘The minimum circumferential stress around a vertical borehole occurs in the direction of the maximum horizontal stress.’
    • ‘The navigator switches on the radar system and the antenna extends, turning through 90° from the horizontal to the vertical plane.’
    • ‘Although I don't think the snow's going to lie, as at the moment it's travelling at speed in a horizontal direction, hardly getting a chance to touch the ground.’
    • ‘The child bends forward at the waist until the spine becomes parallel to the horizontal plane, while holding palms together with arms extended.’
    • ‘Racing skates are also adjustable, but only in the horizontal direction, allowing for a longer or shorter wheelbase.’
    • ‘Vertical or horizontal sag lines mean the garment is too big in that area and needs to be taken in.’
    • ‘This rapid motion was all in a horizontal direction.’
    • ‘The course is simply the horizontal direction in which a vessel is actually moving expressed as an angular distance measured clockwise from north.’
    • ‘Architect Frank O. Gehry has made a career out of bending vertical and horizontal lines of building construction into something defiant and sometimes poetic.’
    • ‘Both vertical and horizontal forehead lines are usually improved by this technique.’
    • ‘In other word, Neoplasticism represents the absolute elements - primary colours and vertical and horizontal lines - that underlie all appearances.’
    • ‘Swimmers must swim face down moving their arms and legs together in a horizontal direction and while their head can be immersed completely, it must break the surface of the water during every complete stroke.’
    parallel, level, even, straight, plane, flush
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    1. 1.1 (of machinery) having its parts working in a horizontal direction.
      ‘a horizontal steam engine’
      • ‘The Joint 5X5 AS is equipped with a pneumatic brake and a horizontal clamp which comes in from the front of the machine to stabilize the rabbet.’
      • ‘Piston rods are preferably hardened on a horizontal machine independent of the machining condition of the end face.’
      • ‘Siebel specialises in fairly inflexible vertical market products, while Oracle has an array of customisable horizontal CRM systems.’
      • ‘The 30 propellant charges on the right in three rows of 10, stowed vertically on a horizontal conveyor belt that runs under the floor of the vehicle.’
      • ‘He pushed the legless ends together on the ground so as to form a virtual hub, from which the crossbars radiated up and outward like the spokes of a giant horizontal wheel.’
      • ‘Merina weavers use a technique known as akotyfahana, produced on a horizontal, fixed-heddle loom with a continuous weft and warp.’
      • ‘Mr Gill said the tandem compound horizontal engine was made by Smith Brothers and Eastwood of Bradford and it was the last example of its type built by the firm.’
      • ‘Leonti ripped the Sestuan's massive sword off of the horizontal mount on the machine's back and parried the other machine's katana with it.’
      • ‘He first constructed a horizontal wheel that he named a Danaide, and later devised another, the Vortex Water Wheel, which he patented in July 1850 and which came to be used extensively.’
      • ‘He used Daniel Bernoulli's theoretical work on the ‘reaction effect’ to produce a horizontal waterwheel using the same principle which drives a modern lawn sprinkler.’
      • ‘A central automatic Bentonmac mixing plant featured four horizontal mixers and six 150-ton silos for cement, aggregate and sand.’
      • ‘The 1 - Series from Makino inaugurates a new era in reliable, high-performance horizontal machine tools.’
      • ‘The low centre of gravity which results from the horizontal engine design has several benefits.’
      • ‘I frequently change my leg training program, and sometimes I do presses on the horizontal leg press machine.’
  • 2Being at or involving the same level of a hierarchy.

    ‘horizontal class loyalties’
    • ‘Significant features of the Coordinadora are the lack of leaders, the practice of direct democracy and horizontal organisation.’
    • ‘Apparently there is debate among the Friends as to whether their organization is mediated through a relationship to Christ, or whether it is based on horizontal friends-relationships.’
    • ‘Because the structure of the Iraqi insurgency is horizontal as opposed to hierarchical, it cannot be decapitated.’
    • ‘The relationship between the former and latter is more horizontal than hierarchical.’
    • ‘In fact, the film repeatedly stages horizontal affiliations that work against the strict hierarchies of the cavalry.’
    • ‘These are the two obvious situations in which horizontal agreements - those between undertakings operating at the same level in the market - may be condemned.’
    • ‘Bureaucracy frustrates desire, channeling it into horizontal loops lacking hierarchy and consequence, dissipating energy and interest.’
    • ‘When sabotage is directed at co-workers who are on the same level within an organization's hierarchy, it is called horizontal violence.’
    • ‘First, this is the first Arab government in the history of the modern Arab world that's ever been produced by a horizontal conversation among the people in the country itself.’
    • ‘Or is the basis of the group entirely horizontal (though with some degree of hierarchy)?’
    • ‘But Middleton's play refuses moral conclusions in a new spirit of horizontal time and space that refuses medieval hierarchy.’
    • ‘The cornerstones are methods of eliminating horizontal violence and hierarchical or patriarchal control.’
    • ‘A horizontal staff team, consisting of the S2, fire support officer, and S4 is shown at battalion.’
    • ‘It provided a way for multiple entities in a UDDI directory to link themselves in a hierarchy or in a horizontal, point-to-point chain.’
    • ‘While we must still retain a hierarchy of being, Haught asserts that it is not a vertical but a horizontal hierarchy.’
    • ‘I see the relationship as basically horizontal on that level, though obviously asymmetric in other ways, including but not limited to the legal aspects.’
    • ‘This looks to things in their horizontal relations and thus ignores the many other levels of existence.’
    1. 2.1 Uniform; based on uniformity.
      ‘horizontal expansion of the international community’
      • ‘Some total purchasing pilots also developed processes for horizontal accountability based on peer review of prescribing and referrals.’
      • ‘The 1983 Communication did not call for a horizontal, overarching, regulatory policy which would apply to research in any area using biotechnological processes.’
      • ‘The vertical system is based on the value of the claim; the horizontal system is based on territorial criteria.’
      • ‘The industry needs not only vertical expansion of same clients spending more money but also horizontal expansion by getting newer categories and clients on board for newer mediums and formats.’
      • ‘This is a setback for studies of the role of horizontal transfer in niche expansion and speciation.’
      • ‘He shows how the fragmentation and intensification of territorial communities continued to cement horizontal values of communal identity.’
      • ‘Known risk factors were studied to understand other causes of horizontal transmission in the population.’
      • ‘There is consistent evidence of sharp horizontal inequalities between groups in conflict.’
      • ‘One of Starbucks' main priorities has always been horizontal expansion.’
    2. 2.2 Combining firms engaged in the same stage or type of production.
      ‘a horizontal merger’
      • ‘These firms achieved most of their financial control through horizontal integration by acquiring the competition.’
      • ‘The key issue with horizontal mergers is that they may allow market power to be wielded, either by single-firm monopolists, or by collusive oligopolies.’
      • ‘Recent studies challenge value creation in conglomerate mergers, concluding that there are no synergies created through diversification or horizontal mergers.’
      • ‘Cooperation between vendors who even competed with each other is necessary to produce a horizontal solution.’
      • ‘These include horizontal mergers of acute hospitals, mental health trusts, and community health services trusts.’
      • ‘They wanted to streamline operations, so his firm suggested a horizontal realignment of operations.’
      • ‘It has consequently recognized explicitly the regulator's need to have comparisons by making very difficult any horizontal mergers in the English water industry.’
      • ‘A horizontal merger may enable the new entity to set price and output in the same manner as a single-firm monopolist, with the same consequences for consumer welfare.’
  • 3Of or at the horizon.

    ‘the horizontal moon’


  • A horizontal line, plane, etc.

    • ‘North and south faces of the building are also symmetrical but on the south the pattern of delicate verticals, floating horizontals and projections is more abstract, reminiscent of a Ben Nicholson.’
    • ‘The harmonious combination of diagonals, verticals, and horizontals produces an effect of solidity and permanence.’
    • ‘Five thin horizontals seem to warp under the pressure of three verticals that are twice as wide.’
    • ‘We've been trained to read a horizon where long horizontals prevail.’
    • ‘His alternation of horizontals and verticals plays like a musician's notes; each arrangement is a complex, nuanced reflection of universal and personal pathos and always more than the sum of its parts.’
    • ‘The picture's vectors are mainly limited to short verticals and long horizontals, an interesting take on classical style.’
    • ‘This method in turn created the type of structural beauty, known as the ‘Mondrian pattern,’ which relies on the interplay of horizontals and verticals.’
    • ‘The view outdoors was framed by the horizontals and verticals of the constructed space in which one stood.’
    • ‘In another image, he paints himself as a Mondrian abstraction, the hints of his profile enough to jar the harmonious verticals and horizontals out of alignment.’
    • ‘The horizontals and verticals of the pattern extend to an autumnal woodland just beyond a sill which serves as a horizon in the middle distance.’
    • ‘For your information, all verticals and horizontals run vertical and horizontal in those diagrams, and I've no idea what ‘axis’ you refer to.’
    • ‘The camera was designed to confront the world in terms of traditional perspective views, with a painter's relation of horizontals and verticals.’
    • ‘Nushu characters are structured by four kinds of strokes, including dots, horizontals, verticals and arcs.’
    • ‘If you want to make things more creative, you might even try mixing horizontals and verticals in the same assemblage or changing lenses between shots.’
    • ‘Here, as in his design of a nautical centre at Bandol, the language is Modernist: floating horizontals, oversailing deck and dissolving glass wall.’
    • ‘The positioning of the diving board - coming at a diagonal out of the corner - gives perspective as well as cutting across the predominant horizontals.’
    • ‘Here and elsewhere, verticals and horizontals dominate, and the works feel structurally balanced.’
    • ‘Originally, the set had four different colors, red, blue, green and yellow, with three colors in each format - large and small, squares, verticals and horizontals.’
    • ‘This seems to be expressed in a language of horizontals representing time, and verticals representing a dimension perpendicular to time, in other words: eternity.’
    • ‘In the pink-toned Wire Canyon Cutoff, for example, the matrix of interlaced verticals and horizontals suggests the warp and weft of a tapestry.’
    centre line, vertical, horizontal
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Mid 16th century (in horizontal (sense 3 of the adjective)): from French, or from modern Latin horizontalis, from late Latin horizon, horizont- (see horizon).