Which Joe gave his name to ‘sloppy joes’? We look at five interesting sandwiches and their lexical origins.
adjective
1Music
Relating to or characterized by harmony.‘a basic four-chord harmonic sequence’- ‘You knew how to find just the right dreamlike quality for the music, whose harmonic language is neither tonal, nor modal, nor truly chromatic, but a little of all three at the same time.’
- ‘Like Michael Brecker, he's absorbed a lot of Coltrane but his harmonic language draws as much from funk and soul as much as jazz.’
- ‘The CD is almost exclusively built on funk grooves and avoids the harmonic and melodic language of bebop.’
- ‘Debussy's supple rhythms and rich harmonic language, influenced in part by the ancient music of the Far East, became the ideal vehicle for painting a mood, no matter how complex or ephemeral.’
- ‘The basic harmonic and melodic language is not complex and often typical of late nineteenth/early twentieth century salon music.’
- 1.1Relating to or denoting a harmonic or harmonics.
- ‘Their music, generally set for unaccompanied four-voice chorus, lacks the melodic and harmonic suavity of European music of the time.’
- ‘In both the first and third movements I was often reminded of the toccata-like sections of Prokofiev's sonatas and concertos, though Lees' melodic and harmonic approaches are quite different.’
- ‘The sonata is a major work that combines the young composer's acerbic wit and uncompromising harmonic astringency with a lyrical bent and cross-cultural echoes of Far Eastern musical modes.’
- ‘If nothing else, this shows how thoroughly Rutkowski has absorbed Gershwin's melodic, harmonic, and keyboard habits.’
- ‘However, Koeluh is many steps behind Haydn in harmonic invention and melodic inspiration.’
2Mathematics
Relating to a harmonic progression.‘the resonant frequencies of the vibrations bear simple harmonic relationships to each other’- ‘Moreover, it led me very directly to the periodogram, and to the study of forms of harmonic analysis more general than the classical Fourier series and Fourier integral.’
- ‘It's true that there are other kinds of mean - geometric mean, harmonic mean, quadratic mean and so on.’
- ‘In addition to his work on set theory, Cohen has worked on differential equations and harmonic analysis.’
- ‘Beurling worked on the theory of generalized functions, differential equations, harmonic analysis, Dirichlet series and potential theory.’
- ‘It was not just to these areas that he contributed but, even more importantly, his work brought out fundamental relationships between the areas when he studied harmonic analysis on topological groups and characteristic classes.’
- 2.1Physics
Relating to component frequencies of a complex oscillation or wave.‘the response of any linear circuit can be found by superposing the responses to each harmonic component of the signal’- ‘His work in harmonic analysis has application in the theory of waves and vibrations.’
- ‘The experiments confirmed that the upper harmonic components appear and exhibit distinct resonant peaks.’
- ‘Electromagnetic homing system using MWD and current having a fundamental wave component and an even harmonic wave component being injected at a target well’
- ‘According to classical electromagnetic theory, a charge rotating with a simple harmonic frequency should emit electromagnetic radiation of the same frequency.’
- ‘Thus, infrared photons at a I Am fundamental wavelength would produce a second harmonic signal in the green at 0.5 Am.’
3Astrology
Using or produced by the application of a harmonic.‘harmonic charts’- ‘Even the untrained eye can easily discern the remarkable pattern in this chart, which is being called the harmonic concordance.’
- ‘In your own 5th harmonic chart you have two very close conjunctions, and some fairly close oppositions.’
- ‘But apparently - I've discussed this with some western astrologers - for the ninth harmonic you multiply it by nine, and divide it.’
- ‘Kepler's new aspects were based upon harmonic theory and grounded in empirical observation of astrological effects.’
- ‘The fourth harmonic chart, indicating how he will manifest in worldly affairs, shows a striking T-square: Pluto in opposition to a Venus-Neptune conjunction, squared by Mars.’
noun
1Music
An overtone accompanying a fundamental tone at a fixed interval, produced by vibration of a string, column of air, etc. in an exact fraction of its length.- ‘It is characteristic of the stretched string that the second harmonic has a frequency twice that of the fundamental; the third harmonic has a frequency three times that of the fundamental; and so forth.’
- ‘The wavelength of the second harmonic is the length of the string.’
- ‘In the concert hall and the recording studio the utmost accuracy is required; with a shorter tube, the same pitches are produced as lower numbers of the harmonic series, where the intervals between harmonics are greater.’
- ‘The harmonics are secondary notes produced when an instrument is played, with frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental note frequency.’
- ‘Freya's long, slow theme in the central movement was sensual and pure, ending first with harmonics above low chords in the orchestra, then with a long high note, held by the soloist and taken up by the orchestra.’
- 1.1A note produced on a musical instrument as an overtone, e.g. by lightly touching a string while sounding it.
- ‘But soon Courtois erupts into an improvised solo of dark chords punctuating sweeping legato lines, while Poulsen releases harmonics and dissonances behind him.’
- ‘A key change to D major heralds solo passages for wind and piano, the Stravinskian texture of which is accentuated by the accompanying violin harmonics.’
- ‘Daughter In The House Of Fools and Mikazuki relying on a more rhythmic and harmonic propulsion utilising a disjointed funk and Eastern sounding harmonics respectively.’
- ‘In György Ligeti's concerto, completed in 1992, the brass are asked to play in natural harmonics, thereby producing notes not included in the equal-tempered scale.’
- ‘In contrast, the gorgeous ‘Waltz with Heating’ is a performance of simple, restrained beauty built around bell like harmonics and rippling chords.’
2Physics
A component frequency of an oscillation or wave.- ‘The square wave represents a sum of sinusoidal frequencies at odd harmonics of the base frequency, the amplitude of which is highest for the base frequency and decreases as the frequency increases.’
- ‘For example, the Earth's magnetic field has a harmonic related to the Moon's daily variations, and also many other harmonics.’
- ‘They may not be able to handle the higher frequency harmonics present in the sharply truncated sine wave output from a lamp module or wall switch.’
- ‘By integrating this source with a delay line and a broadband, grazing-incidence toroidal mirror, the researchers generated odd phase-locked harmonics of the laser frequency up to very high orders.’
- ‘For example, spurious harmonics might result if pulses are transmitted in a fixed repetition modulation, or if too many pulses are sent out during a fixed interval of time.’
3Astrology
A division of the zodiacal circle by a specified number, used in the interpretation of a birth chart.‘the fifth harmonic’- ‘The idea that our list of aspects can be extended to include such angles is not new, although the modern technique of harmonics has formalized it.’
- ‘If you look at a chart and think: ‘Oh, yes, the traditional method shows… but then midpoints and harmonics show… and then Vedic shows…,’ you will not get very far.’
- ‘I find this house system the most revealing, because each house is a harmonic of the first house of the Self.’
- ‘Are you suggesting that harmonics, or any other astrological technique, is a life-denying fiction?’
- ‘You should know that harmonic symmetry demands a second great circle meridian to create sunup and sundown corner quadrants’
Origin
Late 16th century (in the sense ‘relating to music, musical’): via Latin from Greek harmonikos, from harmonia (see harmony).
Pronunciation:
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