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‘Fermions have half-integral spins, and by the Pauli Exclusion Principle, no two identical particles can have exactly the same set of parameters, like energy, position, spin orientation etc., which describe a single quantum state.’
‘Bosons have integral spin and fermions have half-integral spin, where spin is an internal quantum number.’
‘Those with half-integral spins were called fermions, while those with integral spins were classified as bosons.’
‘The properties ascribed to electrons, for instance, such as their charge and half-integral spin, were themselves responses to quite specific experimental findings involving discharge tube phenomena and spectra.’
‘In addition to electrons, the Pauli exclusion principle applies to all sub-atomic particles with half-integral spins, known as fermions, such as neutrons and protons.’