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A state or territory ruled by a grand duke or duchess.
- ‘True, the French alliance enabled Alexander to wrest Finland from the Swedes, and from 1809 until 1917 Finland was part of the Russian Empire, having a semi-independent status as a grand duchy.’
- ‘Belgium became part of a new kingdom of the Netherlands and then, after 1831, a separate realm in her own right; Luxembourg became an independent grand duchy.’
- ‘The political crisis of the grand duchy of Muscovy eventually enveloped much of Eastern Europe, and drew in both Sweden and Poland.’
- ‘Russia finally conquered Finland during the Napoleonic wars of 1808-1809, annexing it as an autonomous grand duchy.’
- ‘From 1889 to 1917 he served in the Russian army, as Finland was then a grand duchy within the Russian empire.’
- ‘Finland had been a grand duchy of the czars for a century, but with the Bolshevik revolution at hand, the Western-oriented Finns rose to throw off their Russian bonds.’
- ‘The 1815 Congress of Vienna, ending the Napoleonic wars, designated Luxembourg a grand duchy, and awarded it to William I, prince of Orange-Nassau, who was also made the first king of the Netherlands.’
- ‘Led by William's daughter, the Grand Duchess, the grand duchy cooperated with the Germans in their unlawful violation of Luxembourg's neutrality during World War I.’
- ‘June 9, 1815, after 400 years of domination by various European nations, Luxembourg was made a grand duchy by the Congress of Vienna.’
- ‘In 1809, Finland was conquered by the armies of Czar Alexander I and thereafter remained an autonomous grand duchy connected with the Russian Empire until the end of 1917.’
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