Main definitions of graft in English

: graft1graft2graft3

graft1

noun

  • 1A shoot or twig inserted into a slit on the trunk or stem of a living plant, from which it receives sap.

    • ‘Plant the roots so the graft or bud union is 2 inches below the ground level.’
    • ‘In successful grafts, seedlings grew well up to 7 weeks after grafting.’
    • ‘I recently went to a local bonsai nursery and checked out the potted up White pines and the grafts were hideous.’
    • ‘From those few grafts, other grafts were made from the top cuttings of the trees, but the seeds have never germinated.’
    • ‘Horticulturists at the facility have repeatedly failed to propagate the plant by cuttings or grafts.’
    scion, cutting, shoot, offshoot, bud, slip, new growth, sprout, sprig
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    1. 1.1 An instance of grafting a shoot or twig on to a living plant.
      • ‘Trees were obtained from grafts on plants of Juglans regia and were pruned in ‘structured axis’.’
  • 2Medicine
    A piece of living tissue that is transplanted surgically.

    • ‘The bone graft is harvested from the patient's pelvic bone and inserted along with a spacer in between the vertebral bodies.’
    • ‘They'd even used bone grafts to lengthen her legs a bit.’
    • ‘Infection and lack of a satisfactory blood supply prevent grafts from surviving.’
    • ‘The technology could revolutionise the treatment of burns and skin damage, offering a less painful alternative to skin grafts and reduced scarring.’
    • ‘The database also provides survival rates of people who received cell grafts, helping doctors and their patients evaluate the potential risks and benefits of transplantation in treating disorders such as leukemia.’
    transplant, implant, implantation
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    1. 2.1 A surgical operation in which tissue is transplanted.
      • ‘Skin grafts are performed by surgeons (including plastic surgeons) and by some dermatologists.’
      • ‘Most people have several grafts done during one operation.’
      • ‘‘I am still undergoing bone grafts and have a pin in my leg, but finally it looks as if the bone is mending,’ she said from Nature's Valley, near Plettenberg Bay.’
      • ‘On December 24, Samsonov had a bone graft, and two pins and wire were inserted around the fracture.’
      • ‘Skin grafts have a 5% to 10% incidence of failure, and when they fail, long-term healing can be a problem.’
      transplant, implant, implantation
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verb

  • 1with object and adverbial Insert (a shoot or twig) as a graft.

    ‘it was common to graft different varieties on to a single tree trunk’
    • ‘To preserve the variation named varieties have to be grafted, a labour intensive business which explains the high price.’
    • ‘A Yoshino cherry is propagated by grafting a cutting onto another cherry trunk or by rooting small cuttings.’
    • ‘Rose Wilt was long thought to be a suspected viral disease caused by grafting scions onto imported root stocks from the U.K., Canada and Australia.’
    • ‘To get the best two-tone look, graft several scions randomly around the plant.’
    • ‘In roses, their spread is chiefly caused by grafting infected scions, buds and/or root stocks; although some can be vectored by parasitizing, chewing or sucking insects.’
    1. 1.1 Insert a graft on (a trunk or stem).
      • ‘Once identified, the tops were cut from the trees and then sent to their seed farm in Vernon, BC where they were grafted onto root stock.’
      • ‘Many of the modern roses in commerce today are grafted onto these stocks.’
      • ‘Remember, many hybrid modern roses are grafted onto a root stock; hence, the resulting rose may not be exactly the same as that from which you took your cuttings.’
      • ‘If a branch grafted into a stock never grows, it is a plain evidence of its not having knit with the stock.’
      • ‘For the best-tasting and fastest fruit production, you should purchase most fruit trees that are grafted onto proper root-stock.’
      affix, slip, join, insert, splice
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  • 2Medicine
    with object and adverbial Transplant (living tissue) as a graft.

    ‘they can graft a new hand on to the nerve ends’
    • ‘Jessica underwent a second operation to graft nerve tissue from the back of her legs into her arm.’
    • ‘Police said yesterday that she was ‘doing well’ after surgeons managed to graft skin on to 20 per cent of the burned area of her body.’
    • ‘The new skin is then grafted back on to the patient without the danger of rejection because it has been made from their own cells.’
    • ‘Surgeons grafted tissue from her leg to the outside of her brain for protection.’
    • ‘Kidney transplant, in which a functioning kidney from a donor is surgically grafted into the patient, has a good rate of success.’
    transplant, implant, transfer
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  • 3with object and adverbial Combine or integrate (an idea, system, etc.) with another, typically in a way considered inappropriate.

    ‘old values have been grafted on to a new economic class’
    • ‘However, the current public and private sectors cannot simply be grafted on to each other; we need to consider how cooperation can best service the public health.’
    • ‘I am not averse to an unhappy ending, far from it, but, as you will gather, I feel endings should arise naturally out of the plot and not be grafted on to it.’
    • ‘Then imagine what could happen if the usage patterns in those regions were grafted onto the huge U.S. economy.’
    • ‘New cultural objectives - such as teamwork or customer service - can't simply be grafted on to an organisation.’
    • ‘The fact of the matter is that mainstream news media is a stable industry, and it is very slow to effectively graft new ideas onto its main business.’
    • ‘Here, you've got two thousand acres, and you hear people say that that European farming tradition has been grafted onto Australia in a way that doesn't really fit.’
    • ‘Instead, they call in the consultants, management is overhauled and new formulas for success are grafted on to the machinery.’
    • ‘Many of these are taken from other disciplines and used as a rough theoretical model onto which we graft our own ideas and practises.’
    • ‘Department stores, cinemas, factories and service stations all took cues from American sources, although they were usually grafted onto earlier styles.’
    • ‘Much was grafted onto previous styles, notably in painting, while monumental sculpture was heavily indebted to Egyptian and north Syrian models, especially in standing and seated individual figures.’
    • ‘Unlike most French teams, they were mentally tough away from home and he has grafted that mentality on to the national side.’
    • ‘I think visual journalism has been grafted onto an old production process and that the traditional newsroom marriage roles need to be redesigned.’
    • ‘A non-competitive system cannot be grafted on to a competitive exam.’
    fasten, attach, add, fix, join, insert
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Origin

Late Middle English graff, from Old French grafe, via Latin from Greek graphion ‘stylus, writing implement’ (with reference to the tapered tip of the scion), from graphein ‘write’. The final -t is typical of phonetic confusion between -f and -ft at the end of words; compare with tuft.

Pronunciation

graft

/ɡrɑːft/

Main definitions of graft in English

: graft1graft2graft3

graft2

noun

mass noun
  • 1Bribery and other corrupt practices used to secure illicit advantages or gains in politics or business.

    ‘sweeping measures to curb official graft’
    • ‘Public procurement laws also need urgent reform to prevent graft and corruption.’
    • ‘Not only do the very poor have little or no monetary income, the wealthy are often able to avoid income taxes thanks to corruption and graft.’
    • ‘We now know the UN was an organisation steeped in corruption, graft and criminal negligence.’
    • ‘Unless we have the certainty of punishment, as in other countries like America or even China, we will not improve, we will not be successful against graft and corruption.’
    • ‘Perhaps most obvious is the drag on the economy imposed by widespread and unrestrained graft and corruption.’
    • ‘He is being tried for bribery, graft and corruption, betrayal of public trust and culpable violation of the Constitution.’
    • ‘Opportunities for graft and corruption will multiply as well, temptations to which religious people are no more immune than anyone else.’
    • ‘Estrada was impeached by the House of Representatives on Nov.13 on charges that included bribery, graft and corruption.’
    • ‘She also ordered more intensive lifestyle checks on public officials as part of her campaign against graft and corruption.’
    • ‘Aside from plunder, Estrada has also been charged with illegal use of an alias, perjury and graft and corruption, which are all bailable offenses.’
    • ‘Corruption is endemic in many societies, and it would be unfair to target Muslim societies as being uniquely prone to bribery, graft, and the private misappropriation of public funds.’
    • ‘‘This is the world your folks and their folks have given to you, a world of graft and corruption at every level of leadership,’ he said.’
    • ‘It took several years before the legislation was drawn up and passed to put into effect a body that must tackle, without fear or favour, allegations of corruption, mismanagement and graft.’
    • ‘But in six years of exposures of illicit arms deals, graft and bribery, only once has the political establishment blushed enough to take action.’
    • ‘In the impeachment complaint, Estrada has been charged with bribery, graft and corruption, betrayal of public trust and culpable violation of the Constitution.’
    • ‘For years these same people ran political life through graft and corruption.’
    • ‘There is no reason they should have to tolerate graft and corruption in any form of public service either.’
    • ‘Now, understand that there was no lying going on, and no graft or theft or anything else of that nature.’
    • ‘Widespread graft and influence peddling among government officials are hampering economic development.’
    • ‘From oil rip offs to mail scams, the country is infamous for fraud, kickbacks and graft.’
    corruption, bribery, bribing, dishonesty, deceit, fraud, fraudulence, subornation, unlawful practices, illegal means, underhand means
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    1. 1.1 Advantages or gains secured as a result of corrupt practices.

verb

[no object]
  • Make money by shady or dishonest means.

    • ‘The only friends I had were people I would graft with or put money together for drugs with.’
    • ‘The corruption within the plants runs thick, with bosses demanding ‘gifts’ of money from their workers, and grafting off those in the hierarchy of management.’
    • ‘The whole plant is corrupt-the bosses graft off the men and off each other.’

Origin

Mid 19th century: of unknown origin.

Pronunciation

graft

/ɡrɑːft/

Main definitions of graft in English

: graft1graft2graft3

graft3

noun

mass nounBritish
informal
  • Hard work.

    ‘success came after years of hard graft’
    • ‘I worked on the programme for two and half years, and nothing came close when it came to hard graft.’
    • ‘For Alan and Penny, it's been a lot of hard graft, but worth every minute.’
    • ‘Doubtless, they'll be glad to rest for a couple of weeks before the hard graft of the championship.’
    • ‘Given the hard graft involved in sheep farming and the fact that many hill farmers are nearing or beyond retirement age anyway, the expectation is that many will give-up their flocks.’
    • ‘After three years of hard graft, Arden opened her first salon on Fifth Avenue and, in common with her rival, the nature of her financial backing remains shrouded in mystery.’
    • ‘Her course tutor said: ‘It was her determination, effort, hard graft and enthusiasm that has earned her this award.’’
    • ‘A year of hard graft and at least £40,000 later, and Mr Marshall, 44, had finished building his own private ‘pub’.’
    • ‘Certain players did not show enough desire and we have got to make sure that every player who puts on that red shirt will give us 90 minutes of sheer hard graft.’
    • ‘I have been doing some hard graft for about 10 days now.’
    • ‘After five years of hard graft in Manhattan recording studios, she finally got her deal.’
    • ‘Months of very hard graft and endeavour came to fruition last Sunday afternoon with the opening of the Daisy Chains pre-school.’
    • ‘He was orphaned at the age of nine, and got a job as a cabin boy, and through sheer hard graft, worked is way up the ranks.’
    • ‘People seem to have such enthusiasm for the event, but as soon as it comes to a bit of hard graft, the very same people disappear.’
    • ‘The rest of the job takes longer and involves rather more hard graft.’
    • ‘Months of casting, rehearsal and hard graft had produced a cohesion any company would be proud of.’
    • ‘It has been hard graft turning things around, but the good news is that extensive renovation and an image makeover have transformed the place into something resembling its former glory.’
    • ‘This means taking control of our nation and getting down to the hard graft of making Scotland the success that it should be.’
    • ‘Clever footwork, intelligent running and sheer hard graft earned him plenty of applause.’
    • ‘A lot of graft and hard work is required before they reach their potential and that must be done during the game.’
    • ‘After months of hard graft restoring the rooms to a decent standard, and setting up a charity to raise money, the centre finally opened and Jackie hasn't looked back since.’
    work, effort, endeavour, toil, labour, exertion, the sweat of one's brow, drudgery, donkey work
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verb

[no object]British
informal
  • Work hard.

    ‘I need people prepared to go out and graft’
    • ‘Into the wind, the home side had to graft harder for scores.’
    • ‘Postal workers are fed up with grafting harder and harder for a pathetically small pay packet and they have told their union they want action.’
    • ‘The 31-year-old has never set the world alight but he has grafted away in the background and is the world's 39th best player.’
    • ‘‘Jon has grafted really hard and has certainly deserved his chance.’’
    • ‘‘We have grafted really hard, done overtime and achieved record amounts of business,’ she said.’
    • ‘To watch Waugh bat is to be reminded of a bygone era in Australian cricket, a time when they were made to graft for every run and sweat for every victory.’
    • ‘He had frozen his scoring shots initially in his innings and grafted hard to get into his stride.’
    • ‘Some heroic defending against the wind in the first half and hard grafting throughout the field kept the men from the Wexford border in contention with the fancied champions for three quarters of the game.’
    • ‘‘They gave us a tough time but we kept grafting and ground out a result.’’
    • ‘‘I have worked with women throughout my career and they are just as passionate about what they are doing and are prepared to graft just as much,’ Donald said.’
    • ‘I was a bit disappointed with my Bs in computing because I thought I had grafted hard in that.’
    work hard, exert oneself, toil, labour, hammer away, grind away, sweat
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Origin

Mid 19th century: perhaps related to the phrase spade's graft ‘the amount of earth that one stroke of a spade will move’, based on Old Norse grǫftr ‘digging’.

Pronunciation

graft

/ɡrɑːft/