A hypothetical massless subatomic particle believed to transmit the force binding quarks together in a hadron.
- ‘According to quantum field theory, gluons and pairs of light quarks and antiquarks should be spontaneously emitted and re-absorbed by the quarks and gluons inside hadrons.’
- ‘Sometimes one of the final-state quarks radiates a gluon just before it ‘hadronizes’ (that is, forms into hadrons such as protons, pions, neutrons, etc.).’
- ‘Above that energy scale, the weak nuclear bosons are massless like the photon that transmits the electromagnetic force between electrons and protons and the gluon that transmits the strong nuclear force between quarks.’
- ‘Thus, about 4 to 5 percent of the entire universe - almost all the familiar matter around us - comes from the energy of motion of quarks and gluons in protons and neutrons.’
- ‘This includes mesons like pions, gauge particles like photons and gluons, the hypothesized Higgs scalar, etc.’
1970s: from glue + -on.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.