One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
A hypothetical massless subatomic particle believed to transmit the force binding quarks together in a hadron.
- ‘This includes mesons like pions, gauge particles like photons and gluons, the hypothesized Higgs scalar, etc.’
- ‘According to quantum field theory, gluons and pairs of light quarks and antiquarks should be spontaneously emitted and re-absorbed by the quarks and gluons inside hadrons.’
- ‘Sometimes one of the final-state quarks radiates a gluon just before it ‘hadronizes’ (that is, forms into hadrons such as protons, pions, neutrons, etc.).’
- ‘Thus, about 4 to 5 percent of the entire universe - almost all the familiar matter around us - comes from the energy of motion of quarks and gluons in protons and neutrons.’
- ‘Above that energy scale, the weak nuclear bosons are massless like the photon that transmits the electromagnetic force between electrons and protons and the gluon that transmits the strong nuclear force between quarks.’
1970s: from glue + -on.
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