Each of the ninth pair of cranial nerves, supplying the tongue and pharynx.
- ‘The hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate pharyngeal dilator muscles.’
- ‘Innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, it is poorly encapsulated.’
- ‘A radiograph of the skull had confirmed a long styloid process on the left, which was perceived to be impinging on the glossopharyngeal nerve, causing referred pain.’
- ‘With stimulation of the hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerves, there were greater increases in the lateral than in the anteroposterior diameter in all three regions.’
- ‘Stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve also increased airway area in all three regions, with the greatest effect in the caudal oropharynx.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.